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WATCH DOG VIDEO !!! Canine Eggs Are Tough To Crack, But Clone Finally Survives! Wednesday, August 3, 2005; Denver, CO - Scientists for the first time have cloned a dog. But don't count on a better world populated by identical, well-behaved canines just yet. That's because the dog duplicated by South Korea's cloning pioneer, Woo Suk Hwang, is an Afghan Hound, a resplendent supermodel in a world of mutts, but ranked by dog trainers as the least companionable and most indifferent among the hundreds of canine breeds... But with so many homeless dogs in the world, cloning more dogs is ridiculous
August 3, 2005; Seoul National University, SOUTH KOREA - The first duplicate pooch ambles on to the world stage today. His birth was a feat of ingenuity and perseverance, but some scientists question the value of the exercise.
The Afghan hound puppy has been hidden from the world at the Seoul National University in South Korea for the nine weeks since his birth from a yellow Labrador Retriever. He bears exactly the same DNA as an older hound who lent a few ear cells to the researchers.
He is also quite a survivor, being the only one of 1,095 cloned embryos implanted in 123 dogs to survive to healthy puppyhood...
In the picture, the dog with longer hair is Snuppy - the first dog clone in the world!!! The other is the donor parent, Tai and Snuppy's surrogate mother actually was a yellow Labrador Retriever. Tai's owner keeps Tai's hair short for maintenance. Although thin and short haired, Tai is healthy. He is over 11 years old now (2013). Average life expentancy of Afhgan hound is 12 years. Snuppy's mum is Simba a retriever.
Slow Clones Since Dolly the cloned sheep made her appearance nearly a decade ago, the field has not advanced as much as was expected at first. If you come here, if you meet him, you may fall in love with him. Cloning animals has proven difficult and every species presents its own problems. Even when everything seems to be going right, the majority of cloned embryos fail because their genes are expressed in abnormal ways.
For dogs, the main challenge lies in harvesting the eggs. Canine eggs leave the ovary at a very early stage of development and then mature as they travel towards the uterus in the oviducts. Harvesting the eggs at the point of ovulation and trying to mature them in a test tube failed.
So the research team had to wait and remove the eggs by flushing them out of the oviducts using a custom-made solution. The nucleus of each of these egg was removed and replaced with a nucleus from an ear cell. Successfully fused cells were then implanted in female genetically-unrelated surrogate dogs.
Pup Talk The painstaking work was completed by the lab of Woo Suk Hwang, the South Korean researcher who is famous for creating a cloned human embryo and deriving stem cells. The lab's dog work is reported in this week's Nature. It took a team of about 15 people two-and-a-half years to produce the dog, whose name "Snuppy" is short for Seoul National University puPPY.
At left side of the photo you can see the puppy age development stages of Snuppy, at right side there's his donor, Tai:
"He is very cute. If you come here, if you meet him, you may fall in love with him," says Hwang, who adds that while the puppy looks exactly like the somatic cell donor, it's still unclear whether their personalities are similar. The donor dog belongs to a Professor of Internal Veterinary Medicine at the university, but the puppy belongs to all human beings, not to myself or the somatic cell donor owner.
The Experiment It all began when the research team in Scotland successfully announced that they cloned a sheep named Dolly from the udder cells of a ewe. The declaration of Dolly's birth fascinated enormous press interest, perhaps because Dolly drew attention to the theoretical possibility of cloning humans.
It was pointed out that the cloning of Dolly was "therapeutic" which suggests possible beneficial applications of cloning, which at the present time seem completely unjustified. The procedure in was simple enough that it would be possible that even for a human to be cloned.
The cloning of Dolly gave birth to the cloning of several mammal species that has resulted in many live births. Pigs, sheep, cows, cats, rodents and, most recently, a mule have been successfully cloned. The purpose of having the exact replica of the animals is to facilitate the genetic engineering of them. Animal cloning interests some food and drug industries if it could result in consistently.
The experiment extends the remarkable string of laboratory successes by Hwang, but also re-ignites a fierce ethical and scientific debate about the rapidly advancing technology. Last year, Hwang's team created the world's first cloned human embryos. In May, they created the first embryonic stem cells that genetically match injured or sick patients.
Scientists transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, with its genetic material, has been removed. The reconstructed egg holding the DNA from the donor cell is treated with chemicals or electric current to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred to the uterus of a surrogate where it continues to develop until birth.
Why have canines been so problematic compared with other mammals? Apparently, because their eggs are released from the ovary earlier than in other mammals. This time, the researchers waited and collected more mature unfertilized eggs from the donors' fallopian tubes.
They used DNA from skin cells taken from the ear of a 3-year-old male Afghan hound to replace the nucleus of the eggs. Of the three pregnancies that resulted, there was one miscarried fetus and one puppy that died of pneumonia 22 days after birth.
That left Snuppy as the sole survivor. He was delivered by C-section from his surrogate mother, a yellow Labrador Retriever. Researchers determined that both of the puppies that initially survived were genetically identical to the donor dog. The researchers say Snuppy has no obvious physical abnormalities, as have some other cloned animals.
They have cloned man's best friend. South Korean scientists, who have been blazing ahead in controversial areas of embryo research, have cleared another hurdle, producing the world's first cloned dog - an Afghan Hound. The advance will not answer the prayers of dog owners determined to replicate Fido or Fluffy because the team of researchers has said that it is focusing on trying to cure people, not clone pets.
What's more, their procedure wouldn't work on a large scale. Still, the technical leap could help jump start a pet-cloning industry that is still in its infancy. And the breakthrough is certain to further fuel an already heated debate about the ethics of cloning human or otherwise.
An Afghan hound, named Bona, was born on June 18 using cloning technology, said Lee Byeong-chun, a veterinary professor of Seoul National University. Two more of the same breed were born later, he said. DNA tests showed that the three female dogs are clones. Lee was a key member of Hwang's research team, most of whose purported breakthroughs in cloning human stem cells were found to be fake. But the team's success in cloning the world's first dog, Snuppy, was confirmed. Lee was the main scientist that led the dog cloning. Cloning a dog had been seen as significant because of the difficulties in working with canine eggs. This was a process that must be done to see if a cloned dog has reproduction capabilities.
1. BOOGER THE 1st COMERCIALLY CLONED DOG Now, it's true that pet-cloning is a niche market. There are only so many Simon Cowells in the world ready to spend $100,000 to get a dog that may have a totally different personality from the original dog's. Woman orders clone of her dead pit bull terrier for 75,000 F.Sterling
An American woman hopes to buy a clone of the pet pit bull terrier which saved her life. Bernann McKunney, from California, will pay a South Korean firm 75,000 F.Sterling if the attempts to clone her dead dog Booger are successful. It would be the world's first commercially cloned dog. Booger saved Miss McKunney's life when he fought off another dog which had attacked her and bitten off her arm. Before he died 18 months ago she had his ear tissue preserved at an American biotech company in the hope that one day she could replicate him.
The firm carrying out the cloning, RNL Bio, has successfully cloned an afghan hound in research. It has already extracted cells from Booger's ear, inserted the genetic material from them into egg cells from a donor dog, and implanted the fertilised cells into eight "surrogate" bitches - this means Miss McKunney could end up with more than one copycat dog.
2. FEKUDA's MOMOTAN CLONED PUG SEOUL, South Korea - Every Friday, Junichi Fukuda leaves his apartment in Tokyo at 2:30 p.m. to make the 4:10 p.m. flight to Seoul's Gimpo International Airport. From there he heads to a biotech lab at the edge of the city, where he picks up a bouncy black pug by the name of Momotan. He takes the 5-month-old puppy to an apartment he has rented nearby and spends the rest of the weekend playing with her. On Monday morning, he drops her off and begins the 8 hour commute back home.
Fukuda, 55, has been doing this since May and will continue until November, when his puppy will be old enough to pass through Japanese customs and come home. This may seem like a lot of work to see an animal, but "Momo" is no ordinary dog, and Fukuda has already invested a ton of money in getting her this far. If she were to reject me because she's not used to seeing me, that would really hurt me," Fukuda says through a translator. "So that's why I think it's very important to visit every weekend.
The truth is that Momo is a clone: a googly eyed, heartwarming breakthrough.
In Fukuda's case, he was willing to spend that and more to create a genetic replica of Momoko, a dog who saw him through a divorce and gave him lots of love in her 16 years of life. She was the best pet in the world for me," says Fukuda, who runs a television commercial production company in Tokyo.
"The reason I was able to work hard and become more successful was because I was together with Momoko, that was how much I loved her. Fukuda worked with Sooam to take a cell sample of the dog just weeks before she died late last year, and three months later, his clone was ready. His eyes widen while comparing his old and new dogs. Momotan, he says, "acts exactly the same as Momoko, but I understand that she is a different dog."
Not only is Sooam the world's leader in commercial dog cloning, but it is also making radical advances in genetics. The insights gained in genetically engineering dogs could unlock advances in human medicine, resurrect extinct species, and more.
3. MISSY - BORDER COLLIE / HUSKY CLONED DOG After hearing the news about Dolly, Joan Hawthorne and John Sperling wanted to find out whether their dog Missy could also be cloned. So, Missyplicity Project was launched in 1997. However, Missy died on July 6, 2002 before any of the clones were born. Missyplicity Project ended in 2006 after spending millions of dollars over a period of 10 years to no avail. Then, in 2007 the Missyplicity Project was brought to Sooam. In October, we received cryopreserved fibroblasts obtained from Missy in 1997 when she was 10 years old. We produced a total of three healthy Missy clones. The first clone, Mira - name of a mythical dragon in Korea, was born on December 5, 2007 and the other two, Chingu - "friend" in Korean and Sarang "love", were born on February 15 and 19, 2008, respectively. Sooam's researchers were able to deliver the first clone in one attempt, unlike other scientists who were involved in the Missyplicity Project for 10 years.
4. PEKINGESE CLONED DOG A Korean biotech company has announced the birth of another cloned dog - a Pekingese. It was the first successful cloning of a toy breed. RNL Bio, a Seoul-based company dedicated to the development of stem cell therapeutics, announced late last week that it successfully produced a clone of a nine-year-old dog named Jasmine for a client in the United States.
5. AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERDS CLONED DOGS Three Australian shepherds, all cloned, at Dr. Hwang's Sooam Biotech Research Foundation.
6. HENRY & KEN CLONED DOGS Ken (left) and Henry (right) were created using DNA plucked from a skin cell of Melvin, the beloved pet of Paula and Phillip Dupont of Lafayette, La. Ken and Henry are genetically identical, though not exact replicas. They're clones of the Duponts' last dog, Melvin, created when scientists injected one of Melvin's skin cells, which contained all of his DNA, into a donor egg that had been emptied of its original DNA. The first cloned puppy soon died from distemper. The lab tried again, this time producing two healthy clones.
7. DYLAN -THE CLONED BOXER Richard Remde and Laura Jacques look shattered. Dog-tired you might say. It's less than a week since the elated couple from West Yorkshire welcomed their new arrivals into the world. However, the bleary appearance of these new parents has nothing to do with three-hourly feeds or regular nappy changes. Just a few hours ago they touched down after a 20-hour flight from Seoul in South Korea. There, in a futuristic lab, they witnessed history being made: the birth of two new boxer dog puppies, which had been cloned from their beloved pet dog, Dylan. It was a world first. Why? Well, the procedure has been conducted many times since an Afghan hound named Snuppy was cloned in 2005, and has always involved cells being taken from a living animal.
But in this new and some might argue disturbing — case, cells were taken from Dylan when he had been dead for almost a fortnight. The incredible story will raise many ethical and moral questions. But today, at their four-bedroom home in Silsden, the couple are defiant.
Laura admits she was in a daze: "I didn't know what to expect. When the puppy started making noises, that's when I knew it was real". Using a biopsy kit they bought on Amazon, Laura took one skin sample from Dylan's tummy four days after his death. 5 months after Dylan's death, the clinic began the cloning process. It wasn't until mid-November that the couple received good news. DNA was extracted from the dog's cells and implanted into a "blank" dog's egg which had its nucleus removed. Electric shocks were then administered to the egg to trigger cell division, before being implanted inside a surrogate dog.
The puppy was the 746th dog to be cloned by the clinic and shares 100 per cent of Dylan's DNA. His "brother" Shadow #747, followed afterwards to another surrogate, but much later in the night and the couple unfortunately missed the moment. It's one thing to copy a pet's physical attributes, but cloning a personality is impossible. However, Laura says it was never her intention to create a complete doggy double.
8. TROUBLE CLONED DOG
9. AHYUN & YONG - DINDO CLONED DOG The Korean Jindo is a breed of hunting dogs. They are known for its loyalty and gentle temperament. Korea designated Jindo as its 53rd Natural Treasure and passed Jindo Preservation Ordinance. Koreans hope that just like German Shepherds, through appropriate training and breeding methods, Jindos can one day be used extensively as both rescue dogs and companion dogs. To help such preservation and breeding efforts for Jindo, Sooam decided to clone purebred Ahyun and Yong.
10. BOKHEE - TIBETIAN MASTIFF CLONED DOG The Tibetan Mastiff is an ancient domestic dog breed. On average, it grows to 70 cm in height and 80 kg (about 175 lbs.) in weight. This is why the Chinese call it "big ferocious dog." It is now listed as an endangered species. Because of the rarity, the breed is sometimes sold for more than a million USD. Bokhee and Mankang were cloned in 2007 for the purpose of preserving the breed. Sooam was able to clone 11 male and 10 female healthy Tibetan Mastiffs. Then, through artificial insemination (AI) of a cloned male and a cloned female, 7 healthy offsprings were born. This showed that cloned dogs are capable of reproducing and that preservation of endangered species is possible through cloning.
11. JUMI - MALTESE & SHIH TZU CLONED DOG Jumi did not eat or drink after her friend died. Jumi's family was scared because Jumi was more than 10 years old at the time. They wanted to clone Jumi to avoid losing her and making her feel lonely. As you can see in the left picture, the clones in front are dragging Mr. Cho with immense energy, and Jumi is walking at a distance with Mrs. Park. Because of Jumi's health condition, she sometimes has to be carried by Mrs. Park when the dogs go out for a walk. According to Mr. Cho and Mrs. Park, the clones are very healthy and active just like Jumi when she was younger.
12. QUINN - GERMAN SHEPHERD CLONED DOG On March 16, 2007, a 9-year-old old girl was abducted in Jeju Island, Korea. Jeju Police Department searched in vain for over a month with deployment of more than 30,000 police officers. As the last resort, the police department trained their best bomb sniffing dog Quinn to find the missing child's body. It usually takes months if not years to properly train a dog. Quinn was trained for only three days to detect human scent. However, he only need 20 minutes to find the body of the little girl. Because of this heroic effort and immense capability shown by Quinn, Jeju Police Department decided to clone him. Su, Oreum, Iron, Gangsan, and Baekdu were born between January and February of 2010. All of the five clones are currently being trained by the Jeju Police Department as search and rescue dogs just like Quinn.
13. LANCELOT - LABRADOR RETRIEVER CLONED DOG Lancelot is the world's first commercialized cloned dog. Edgar and Nina Otto, the parents of Lancelot, named the clone "Lancelot Encore." According to Ottos, when Lancelot Encore came out of the chute, he ran straight to them even though it was his first time seeing them. Also, he bonded immediately with other pets in the house and acted just like the original Lancelot.
14. JURORONG YORKSHIRE TERRIER CLONED DOG Sungduk University in Korea requested to clone Jurorong for educational purposes in college and kindergarten. We wish that the cloned Jurorongs will remind students about scientific breakthrough and motivate them to respect every life form. Jurorong and the clones are very active and lively, so the Jurorongs will also be able to bring joy and happiness to help the recovery of certain patients with illnesses.
15. TRAKR K9 RESCUE & SEARCH CLONED DOGS The dogs are genetic replicas of a famous K9 dog. These are no ordinary dogs. They are genetic replicas, clones, of a K9 police partner, a famous search and rescue dog named Trakr. These five German shepherds, shown with owner James Symington, are genetic replicas, clones, of Trakr, a famous K9 police partner and search and rescue dog. Symington is training the dogs to help in search and rescue efforts throughout the world. Photo courtesy of Team Trakr. Trakr has been credited with finding hundreds of people and more than $1 million worth of stolen goods. His crowning achievement, though, came in the wake of the World Trade Center disaster on Sept. 11, 2001.
Trakr and his owner, former Canadian police officer James Symington, arrived at Ground Zero from Halifax, Nova Scotia within 14 hours of the towers' collapse. At some point during the morning of September 12, Trakr got a hit, indicating that somebody alive was buried beneath the surface. Rescue workers excavated the area and pulled out a woman. She would be the last survivor found after 9/11. A few years later, Symington and his family moved to Los Angeles, where he works as a manager in the entertainment industry. It was there that Trakr's odyssey took a turn for the surreal. In 2008, Symington learned of a contest being conducted by BioArts International, a biotech corporation based near San Francisco, for the World's Most Clone worthy Dog. Trakr by that point was 15 years old, aging and infirm. Symington entered Trakr into the contest, along with a DNA sample. He won, and later, five genetic replicas of Trakr were produced at the Sooam Biotech Foundation, a laboratory in South Korea.
In June of 2009, the puppies arrived in Los Angeles to meet Symington for the first time. Symington gave them names to reflect different qualities of Trakr: Trustt, Solace, Valor, Prodigy and Deja vu. But they would never meet their genetically identical father-Trakr had died two months earlier. The dogs began training in December under the direction of Kevin Gallivan, an experienced trainer from Nova Scotia who trained Symington and Trakr in 1995. In February or March, each dog will be matched with a handler. The handlers will then be integrated into the training, which Symington hopes to complete by April. At that point, the dogs will be ready for deployment wherever they are needed across the globe. The dogs have been training at a private property in Malibu for one or two days a week.
16. POWER OF LOVE - MALTESE CLONED DOG
17. SIBERIAN HUSKY CLONED DOG
JASMINE - POMERANIAN CLONED DOG
18. GOLDEN RETRIEVER MIX CLONED DOG
19. BOSTON TERRIER CLONED DOG
20. SAM - JINDO CLONED DOG
21. POL & SARA CLONED DOGS
21. SUBONG - BEAGLE CLONED DOG
22. GREYHOUND CLONED DOGS
23. BUBBLE CLONED DOG Wolfie and Bubble are sisters. They were born February 24th 1994. Bubble passed away in 2007 at age 13, Wolfie died a day after her 15th Birthday February 25th 2009. My dream to clone them started in 2000. Although dog cloning was not available at the time, I knew that it would one day be possible. I also knew that it would be very expensive. Back then I was poor and had no money and poor credit. I came up with a simple 10 year plan. I would start my own company and save money. Work hard, save, and live humbly.
I did not know how to use a computer or know what it was I would do. I knew that I had a brain, two hand and two legs and can read and write. That and determination fueled by love was all I needed to get started. I knew that if there are other humans in this world that can reach success then I can too. I bought a computer and went to the bookstore. I read and read. I have not stopped reading since. Today I feel I have walked a million miles. I am so very tired, but have almost reached my goal. I am cloning my dogs because I love them and miss them.
24. WOLFIE CLONED DOG
25. MINI WINNIE CLONED DOG Five-month-old puppy 'Mini Winnie' was created using the genes of 12-year-old dachshund Winnie in a South Korean laboratory. Owner Rebecca Smith won a £60,000 contest to have her pet recreated in a scientific breakthrough which could allow millions of dog lovers to immortalise their pets.
26. DOUBLE CLONED DOG
27. DEENE & EVITE CLONED DOGS Barry Diller and Diane von Furstenberg Cloned Their Dog.
The artificially created Afghan hound became a father in May last year after impregnating two cloned bitches, in what was the world's first successful breeding involving only cloned canines. One of the 10 puppies died shortly after birth, but the remaining nine: 6 males and 3 females remain healthy.
Snuppy, the world's first cloned dog, is now part of another milestone. Snuppy is a father! South Korean researchers said today that Snuppy mated with a cloned female to produce a litter of 9 puppies, the first offspring of two cloned canines. This shows the reproductive ability of a cloned dog. The team plans similar breeding experiments with its cloned wolves.
The scientists say the births mark the world's first breeding among cloned dogs, though breeding among cloned rats, cows and pigs has successfully been carried out abroad. The Seoul National University team suffered a blow to its reputation after internationally acclaimed breakthroughs in stem cell research by its former head, Hwang Woo-suk, were found to have been faked. Snuppy's puppies would certainly be the first from a cloned dog. She noted that breeding among cloned animals has not proved problematic.
Snuppy, a black Afghan hound, has been living at a university facility with three other female dogs - tan Afghan hounds cloned by the team in 2006. Lee said Tuesday that his team injected Snuppy's sperm into two of the three female clones - Bona and Hope - in March using artificial fertilization.
One of the 10 puppies - four from Bona and six from Hope - died of a digestive problem about a month after birth, but the rest are all healthy, the team said. On Tuesday, the university showed off four of the puppies, which scampered, wagged their tails and frolicked with their parents. The four dogs, all different colors, have Korean names: Gang, Byul, Bom and Ga-eul, which mean river, star, spring and autumn.
They also showed dogs' typical parental affection: they barked and were so restless when we took their puppies to measure weights and conduct other tests. Snuppy didn't like baby dogs before, and whenever he was approached by small dogs, he walked away. But now he doesn't budge when his puppies are near him, So we think Snuppy has truly became a father. The Korea Times reports that applications are being accepted, and the nine puppies will be given to good homes at no charge. The puppies aren't clones themselves, but are the offspring of Snuppy and two female Afghans that were cloned at SNU to serve as his girlfriends, and for research purposes, namely to determine whether two cloned dogs can produce pups the natural way, or at least through artificial insemination.
Missy's Puppies doing well! Missy donated her DNA, in the form of a skin biopsy, back in 1999, when she was still perfectly healthy. She died in 2002. In late 2007 and early 2008, her clones were born. It took nearly 11 years and more than $20 million from Sperling, but Missy has at last been immortalized in the form of three puppies. Both BioArts and the Sperlings say it's not about replication, necessarily. It's also a fascinating experiment in nature vs. nurture. Will Missy's clones act exactly like her, or will the resemblance only be DNA-deep? And more important, will the clones be as healthy as nongenetically-engineered dogs? According to BioArts, the dogs are perfectly healthy. They have none of the problems that have sometimes plagued clones, like heart and lung issues. Pictures show that the puppies look a lot like Missy. They have the same fur patterns and texture, at least. They're the same breed mix, probably border collie and German shepherd. And they'll probably grow up to look just like Missy.
Personality, of course, is much harder to quantify. Personality in dogs is loosely defined as behaviors, preferences and traits like stubbornness, intelligence and play styles. Missy's clones act, well, like puppies. BioArts does report, however, that the puppies are, like Missy, both intelligent and willful. And, like Missy, they love broccoli, which BioArts says is a very rare trait in dogs.
Owners will be disappointed. So much of the personality of a dog comes from the way you treat them. Most of Dog owners love their pet not for visual look, but for their character and personality. Cloning just creates a visual copy, also not that exact in most of the cases!. Cloning will not give you your pet back, not exactly. There do not yet appear to be any studies on the behavior of cloned pets, but research on cloned cows and pigs has so far shown marked differences in behavior and even looks in cloned animals.
The technology of cloning has been sold to the public as a way of creating a group of identical animals and, as such, there are companies that have been set up around this concept, especially for pet cloning, said Jorge Piedrahita, a molecular biomedical sciences professor at N.C. Think of it like identical twins: The DNA is exactly the same, but there are still differences in personality and, if you know how to look for it, appearance. A word of caution: cloning an animal's genetics is not the same as cloning who that individual is.
The author of the book - John Woestendiek shares his insights into the dog side of dog cloning:
What is the biggest difference between clones and originals? Unfortunately, you won't know that until your puppy clone comes home. Likely, it will be a very close physical match. The cloners ensure that by making multiple clones for every dog they are cloning, and then passing along to the customer the one that most closely resembles the original. What happens to the rest? Good question.
Overall, the biggest difference between a clone and the original is likely to be personality, which even the cloners now admit can't be duplicated. Given that much of personality is shaped during the first months of puppy life, much of it will probably already be in place before a dog cloning customer finally, after four months at least, given quarantine issues, gets his or her dog. A clone is a twin, and most of us know how different, personality wise, twins can be.
My biggest problem with the industry, in its earlier days on the market, was that it was being deceptive, and exploiting the grief of pet owners. It was pretty much promising a dog that would be same in every way. Since then, the one remaining company that does it has toned that down, and admits personality can't be duplicated.
But of course, a clone is not the same dog. In fact, thanks to a cloned dog having different mitochondrial DNA from its genetic donor, they are slightly less related than identical twins. Nuclear DNA is certainly an important contributor to a dog's physical and behavioral makeup. Just look at all the dog breeders who will guarantee dogs who are good bird flushers or child-friendly or particularly adept at sniffing out bombs.
But nurture is an important component as well. For example, dogs start to become socialized toward humans in their third week of life, but can't become socialized long after the first 16 weeks of life. When pressed about how much the clones are really alike, the Duponts admit there are little differences, much as differences show up among identical twins. The white stripe on Henry's nose is a lot wider than Ken's, and Henry weighs a bit less. Ken is more of a loner. But that's about it for differences.
Cloned dogs do not look or act exactly like the original This is the point that people tend to find most surprising and disappointing. What attracts many to the idea of cloning is the idea of having an exact copy of a dog, including all the things that make it unique. Unfortunately, that's not how it works. In the cloning process, an embryo based solely on the original dog's DNA is implanted in the womb of a surrogate mother (typically a dog of the same breed). Even though the surrogate dog doesn't chip in any genetic material, it can influence how the embryo develops, which in turn can determine certain outward traits. Thus, while the clone should strongly resemble the original, it's still pretty likely that you will be able to tell the difference just by looking. Even if you strive to treat the new dog exactly the same, there are many factors outside your control that go into the personality stew.
Will the dog clone act the same as the original dog? We are the sum of our experiences. Our personality is unique to our individual selves. It is our past experiences that shape who and what we are today. The books we read, the movies we watch, the things we have done and the mistakes and decisions we make are part of who we are today. The way our parents raised us and the environment we grew up in play a big role in what we eventually become. The same holds true for dogs. If the new clone grows up in the same environment as the original dog than the personality will be the same or closely similar.
Our universe is so amazingly beautiful and mysterious. There are so many things about our universe that is so utterly incredible and there are also many things we humans cannot even fathom. Take a moment and think of the little things we do know about our universe. As you sit here reading the words on this page there are radio waves filled with music passing through your body. Transmitted from a radio station to your radio. There are thousands of cell phone conversations that are magically transmit over the air invisibly passing over oceans and land and through your body. We send movies and information digitally through air and cable directly to your television, computer, and smart phone.
Then there is the beauty of mathematics and music. How did we do that? How do we figure out and create things? How did we come up with songs that evoke emotions. How did we figure out mathematics that are the building blocks for the things we experience everyday. How about the beauty and wonder of our galaxy? The concept of time and distance of life and evolution and what about love? An emotion so powerful that it makes us humans do things we would never have done without the emotion called love. And what about the trillions of planets spinning in the darkness of space? So beautiful it steals your breath away.
Too many different factors operate on an individual, scientists caution, for two individuals to be carbon copies of each other. While the clones will be genetically identical to the original, other factors besides genetics significantly impact each individual's appearance, anatomy, physiology and behavior.
With so much we have yet to understand how do we know if the souls of our beloved pets are not with us. Who's to say that love is just as powerful after death than in life? That the soul of your lost pet is gone forever or perhaps reborn in their clone. They are a genetic copy but as time passes by they will be more and more different.
Sooam says it can clone any dog, regardless of age, size, or breed. Taking just one microscopic skin cell, the team from Sooam Biotech claim they can recreate an exact clone of a dog canine in just two months. It says about one out of three cloned embryos will develop into a healthy puppy. Though institutions like Sooam and its peers are not transparent with their success rates, it's reasonable to say Sooam is the most efficient cloning lab in the world.
To date, Sooam has cloned more than 600 dogs. At any given time, 40 to 50 of them are housed there in care rooms. Now, it's true that pet-cloning is a niche market. There are only so many Simon Cowells in the world ready to spend $100,000 to get a dog that may have a totally different personality from the original dog's.
Reproductive cloning, in which you create an exact genetic duplicate of an organism, is not like photocopying pages in a book. The cloning process does not simply spit out replicas ad nauseum. Nevertheless, that concept seems to pervade the public's perception of the technology, fueling fears of clone armies and herds of cloned super-animals in the future.
Man's best friend are one of the most difficult mammals to clone. The first cloned dog, an Afghan hound named Snuppy, took 1,095 failed embryos to get a winner. Researchers of the Snuppy project, at Seoul National University, used 123 surrogate dogs before one could carry a cloned puppy embryo to term in 2005. Remember Dolly the sheep? That revolutionary animal clone followed 277 unsuccessful attempts. The whole process takes less than a day.
Reproductive Cloning The most common type of reproductive cloning is called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Let's say we plan to clone a male golden retriever named Archie. With SCNT, you begin by extracting an egg from a female golden retriever. You remove the nucleus from that egg, which contains the DNA. Then, you take a cell from Archie and remove that cell's nucleus as well.
You inject the nucleus from Archie's cell into the donor egg. Next, apply electricity to the nucleus and egg to fuse the two together, mimicking the union of sperm and egg in natural reproduction. The electricity also stimulates cell division, forming an embryo. Finally, you implant that embryo into a female dog's uterus, thus impregnating her. When the surrogate dog gives birth, you have an adorable puppy clone of Archie.
But creating an Archie clone is not as simple as it sounds. First, getting the egg from a female dog can be troublesome because dogs don't experience regular ovulation cycles like humans. Although hormones can jumpstart ovulation in humans, canines do not respond to such treatments. Not only must scientists wait for dogs to go into heat, the eggs stay mature for just a few hours, leaving a brief window of opportunity for extraction . If scientists do manage to extract an egg, a coating of fat makes it difficult to remove the nucleus. Consequently, since 2005, only around 40 dogs have been cloned.
To clone a dog you need to use a lot of other dogs to serve as egg donors and surrogates, Hyun explains, and that means many dogs are undergoing surgical procedures. Most of the time the process doesn't work; many attempts are required to produce a single clone.
It makes sense, it also makes no sense at all. But one thing is for sure: There must be better ways to spend $100,000 if you are an animal lover. And you are still ready to go with it - The first obstacle to cloning your dog is that $100,000 cost. The second is getting the right kind of cells.
It's easier if your dog is still alive, in which case you just take it to the vet to get a biopsy sample, a piece of skin from the abdomen measuring 8 millimeters, or about half the width of a penny. Then you put those samples in an ice-pack-filled plastic-foam box and mail the box to Sooam.
You can clone a dog that has been dead for fewer than five days, too, as long as you wrap its body in wet towels and place it in a refrigerator, which keeps it from drying out before getting to the vet. If the dog is dead, Sooam asks that you send as many skin samples as possible so that the lab has a better chance of finding living cells.
Once the samples get through Korean customs, which can take up to three days, Sooam's biologists can finally get to work. The process they do perhaps better than anywhere else in the world is called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A somatic cell is any cell that isn't a reproductive cell like a sperm or an egg - in this case, it is the skin cell taken from the biopsy. The biologists sterilize the sample, isolate the cells they want, and put them in a growth medium. One to two weeks later they have the cells necessary for the cloning process.
Then it's time for the most controversial part. Sooam operates on a pair of dogs rented from a lab-animal provider: an egg donor and a surrogate mother. These dogs are used only once by Sooam before they are returned for whatever else life holds for a lab-rental dog. A surgery is happening when we visit Sooam, as there is just about every day.
You really need to think twice about it in terms of animal welfare, Dog owners should really be aware of the potential harm to dogs that could be produced during this process. Most cloned animals end up pretty sickly, which raises further questions about the cloning process. The cloning process is imperfect. It doesn't completely reset the DNA to an embryonic state, so depending on how imperfect that process is, you have different ailments that will befall the dog, many of them might die at an early age.
Thinking about cloning? Using a complicated process called enucleation, a healthy egg is injected with the DNA of the dog to be cloned to create a genetic copy of the original dog. The fertilized egg is then implanted into a surrogate dog. Appearance and behaviors in the dog clone are similar, but not exactly the same.
There is a 30% rate of success for this procedure. The cost is $100,000 and performed by the South Korean Sooam Foundation. Many owners want to clone mixed breed dogs since they are harder to replace. Clones can be created in 2 months. Since cloning started, 400 dogs have been successfully created.
Dog cloning is done almost exclusively in South Korea – In fact, dog cloning is becoming a new and somewhat profitable industry in South Korea as this story in Time Magazine demonstrates.
People pay an exorbitant amount of money to get their dogs cloned - Between $100,000 - $155,000, although recently a Staffordshire Bulldog was cloned for someone in Florida for $55,000, and prices are expected to go down thus making cloning your pet that much more affordable.
A cell from the dog to be cloned is inserted into an egg from a donor and then implanted into a surrogage. A great way to think about it is in creating an identical twin. The two are similar in appearance, have similar personality characteristics, but can differ in some ways. Also, since the environment and experience while young wouldn't be exactly the same, an owner can expect some behavioral differences.
Dog Cloning Comes With a Guarantee For a Happy Puppy. The negatives of cloning are what happens to the fetus's that do not make it through the cloning process.
DOG BIOPSY INSTRUCTIONS
COMPANIES Sooam (South Korea) RNL Bio (South Korea) BIOARTS (USA) VIAGEN (USA)
The geneticist Hwang Woo-suk is behind the latest round of dog cloning. Dr. Hwang is among 15 inventors listed on an approved U.S. patent for dog cloning. He was disgraced after investigators discovered that Hwang faked research results on human cloning technology. Today, Dr. Hwang leads the Sooam Biotech and has successfully cloned over 400 dogs. Cloning is also available under license from Viagen Cloning Technology of Cedar Park, Texas.
PROS & CONS There are many good reasons for cloning a dog. This includes a burning desire to bring back a loved pet, or the cloning of a champion show dog. Outstanding dogs groomed for a particular task such as a dog that helps a blind person, might be a strong candidate for cloning. That said, no clone will be exactly the same as the original. Critics of dog cloning say that it is an inhumane procedure since many dog eggs are destroyed in the process. They also object to the dogs used in the experiments necessary to perfect the process. Ehticists see dogs as a member of a person's family, and should not be cloned in the same way that you would not clone a family member.
First up is making an incision with a pen laser, sending the unforgettable scent of burnt dog flesh into the room. Then surgeons pull out the dog's pink ovaries to flush out the eggs. On the other table rests another splayed dog. This is the surrogate - a cloned embryo will grow inside her. I watch as Hwang and his team nimbly insert an embryo into the animal. "Hopefully, we can get a cloned puppy after 61 days," Hwang says matter-of-factly and without translation.
These operations happen five to 20 times a day at Sooam. Hwang has a saying that the days of the week are "Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Friday, and Friday" - meaning everybody comes to work every day. As it was explained to me, the dogs, eggs, and embryos don't know it's the weekend, so that's no excuse for taking off work.
In the next step, a biologist will place a petri dish with the oocytes under a microscope attached to what looks like an old-school arcade cabinet. Using two joysticks, he will guide a hypersensitive pipette to puncture the egg and pull out the nucleus so it no longer has any genetic material. The biologists will take a cell from the donor dog and insert it into that "enucleated" egg.
The egg will then be placed into a machine called an Electro Cell Manipulator, which zaps it with electricity to make the membranes of the donor cell and the egg more porous, allowing them to fuse.
In this way, the donor dog's genetic material acts kind like sperm in natural reproduction. In normal reproduction, the egg and the sperm combine to get all the chromosomes of the baby to be. But in the case of cloning, all that genetic information is coming from the somatic cell. And voila! It's a cloned embryo. No sperm needed.
Thirty days later, Sooam will be able to verify the surrogate's pregnancy, which the company says has about a 40% success rate. If all goes well, then after another 30 days the clone will be born. This is what the bleeding edge of biology looks like, and even though few advocates of pet adoption would endorse the practice, it's impressive.
FLUORESCENT PUPPY CLONE This material proudly presented by WWW.OMNIDOG.COM
South Korean scientists have finally announced what they pulled off almost 18 months ago, the births of four cloned beagles that glow red under ultraviolet light. All named "Ruppy" - a combination of the words "ruby" and "puppy". The dogs are no more puppies! Seoul National University professor Lee Byeong-chun, head of the research team, says they are the world's first transgenic cloned dogs. The fluorescence serves no purpose, other than letting the scientists know that the modified genes they inserted during the cloning process were successfully transferred.
What's significant in this work is not the dogs expressing red colors but that we planted genes into them! Successfully cloning dogs with flourescent genes paves the way to implanting disease-related genes into dogs, which will allow scientists to study and develop cures for human diseases. The fluorescence is noticeable, even when the dogs aren't under ultraviolet light. The Ruppy I met and photographed had pinkish skin around his nose, and pink claws.
Scientists in the U.S., Japan and in Europe have cloned fluorescent mice and pigs, but SNU's achievement is the first time dogs with modified genes have been cloned successfully. He said his team took skin cells from a beagle, inserted fluorescent genes into them and put them into enucleated eggs cells from a surrogate mother dog. Those were implanted into the womb of the surrogate mother, a local mixed breed. Six cloned flourescent female beagles were born in December 2007, two of which died.
SUPER-BEAGLE GENE EDIT This material proudly presented by WWW.OMNIDOG.COM
First, scientists in South Korea brought us dog cloning - a chance, or so it was initially described, to use cells from your sick, dying or even dead dog to create the exact same dog again, in healthy puppy form. It was a bad idea! Now, scientists in China are hard at work on an equally worrisome one. Chinese researchers report they have created a beagle with double the amount of muscle mass, through a process called "gene editing."
To create one "super beagle," the researchers injected more than 60 dog embryos. Less than half survived to birth. Of 27 puppies born, only two had the sought after disruption in their myostatin genes. And in only one was the gene editing considered "complete". Gene editing involves injecting embryos with a DNA snipping enzyme, Cas9, and a guide molecule that zeroes in on a particular stretch of DNA. The goal is to knock out the myostatin gene so a dog's body can not produce any of the muscle-inhibiting protein that the gene manufactures. The result, as they see it, is a Super Dog, which will be useful to the police and military. This is hardly the first time man has manipulated the species. We have been doing it for centuries by inbreeding them to create dogs that, while not necessarily healthier and sometimes quite the opposite, better suit our needs and please our eyes.
Custom made, genetically engineered dogs will have more muscles and are expected to have stronger running ability, which is good for hunting, police and military applications. The scientists intend to create dogs with other DNA mutations, including ones that mimic human diseases such as Parkinson's and muscular dystrophy to be used in biomedical research. They said his group had no plans breed to breed the extra-muscular beagles as pets. But, as the Review article points out, that wouldn't stop others from moving to commercialize the gene-editing process. A different Chinese Institute, BGI, said in September it had begun selling miniature pigs, created via gene editing, for $1,600 each as novelty pets. team says the sole male dog they successfully produced, named Hercules, would pass the myostatin mutation on if he were to be bred.
Sooam Biotech has cloned highly trained rescue and police dogs for the South Korean government, as well as a number of highly prized pets in the US. Korean police plan to select a superior breed of dogs and have a bio-engineering institute reproduce its clones to use them as K-9 dogs for bomb detection and other police missions. The National Police Agency (NPA) said Monday that it has set aside 1 billion won ($970,000) in taxpayers' money to finance a cloning project aimed at producing 40 cloned police dogs using domestic technology. Korea is the only country in the world that possesses cloning techniques to duplicate dogs. To secure highly-exceptional police dogs, we will select a species, which is suitable for police missions, from a wide range of superb breeds - we will then produce its clones.
The official said it will take about a year to select a breed and make other preparations prior to the cloning procedure. Currently, police have a total of 130 K-9 dogs and use them to detect narcotics and explosives, as well as search missing persons. The dogs are all breeds of German shepherds, Labrador retrievers and Belgian Malinois. But according to the NPA, none of the dogs has shown exceptional talents. Following the successful cloning of K-9 dogs, the NPA plans to deliver them to its K-9 dog training center in Daejeon and regional police offices for training, which normally takes four to five months.
Cloned drug-sniffing dogs on duty in Seoul Six cloned drug-sniffing dogs have gone on duty at Seoul International Airport in South Korea. The dogs are among seven genetic duplicates of a single Labrador retriever named Chase, cloned at Seoul National University for use by the Korean Customs Service. The dogs, having completed 16 months of training, will work at the airport and three other customs checkpoints to deter drug smuggling, according to the Associated Press. They are part of a litter of seven born in 2007 through cloning a skilled drug-sniffing canine in active service. They were all named "Toppy" - a combination of the words "tomorrow" and "puppy." One dropped out of training due to an injury. The cloning was conducted by a team of Seoul National University scientists who in 2005 successfully created the world's first dog clone, an Afghan hound named Snuppy. The customs service says using clones could help reduce costs due to the difficulties in finding dogs qualified to sniff out contraband. Only about three of every 10 naturally born dogs the service trains end up qualifying for the job.
Clones of 9/11 hero dog unveiled in Los Angeles Trust, Solace, Prodigy, Valor and Dejavu in Los Angeles, California to present the cloned puppies of Trakr, a German shepherd, who sniffed out survivors from under the rubble of New York's World Trade Center after the 2001 terror strikes. Trakr was cloned in South Korea under the direction of Doctor Hwang Woo-Suk. James Symington, a former Canadian police officer, choked back tears as he formally took possession of the five descendants of his beloved German shepherd named Trakr, who died in April. Symington and Trakr arrived at the site of the World Trade Center collapse, commonly referred to as Ground Zero, on September 12, 2001 and were one of the first K9 search and rescue teams on the scene.
After working nearly non-stop for 48 hours, Trakr located the last human survivor found in the rubble of the twin towers. Trakr was an extraordinary search and rescue dog. His work at Ground Zero was the culmination of his career. Hawthorne said Trakr had been chosen for cloning because of his heroics on 9/11. "We received many very touching submissions to our contest, describing some truly amazing dogs," he said. "But Trakr's story blew us away."
"The physical similarities are uncanny," he told AFP. "He's the spitting image of the Trakr that I first met in 1995. He has exactly the same markings, the way he moves, everything. Very alert, very intelligent and intuitive. Cloning's not for everyone. But there are few dogs that are born with extraordinary abilities and Trakr was one of those dogs. "I look forward to the day that these puppies can follow in Trakr's footsteps and play an important role in other rescues, like Trakr did.
The mummified remains of an ancient puppy found near River Syalakh in Russia's Sakha Republic could be used to bring its species back from the dead after being frozen in time for almost 12,400 years. Controversial cloning guru Hwang Woo-suk has also taken samples from the remains in a bid to bring the extinct species back to life. A suspected sibling of the puppy was pulled from the same location near the village of Tumat four years earlier in 2011 - dubbed Tumat Dog. It has since been subject to a post-mortem examination which revealed the litter may have been killed during a landslide.
What is of real interest is the fact the (Tumat dog) has a completely preserved carcass, which is unique by itself, with nothing like it in the world. Although the tissues are mummified, they have no post-mortem decomposition.
The mummified remains (pictured) of an ancient puppy could be used to bring its species back from the dead after being frozen in time for 12,400 years. Experts have thawed the animal, ahead of a full and official post mortem, to discover its brain is still surprisingly "well preserved."
Details, including its teeth and fur, have been revealed in a video that shows mud and dirt from a dozen millennia being washed off the frozen puppy. The carcass is preserved very well and one of the most important things is that the brain is preserved.
The degree of preservation is said to be around 70 to 80 percent, although the experts will be able to be more specific after the animal is fully extracted. Although it has dried out, both the parencephalon, cerebellum and pituitary gland are visible. In this image, the dog's teeth are exposed.
The dimensions of the discoveries in 2011 and 2015 and their location in Tumat village indicate both puppies may belong to the same litter. They were found two meters away from each other, although the 2015 puppy is better preserved than the previous one, said experts.
Puppy lovers in the United Kingdom may soon get a chance to extend their dog years, thanks to an odd new contest: A South Korean company wants to clone the most beloved U.K. pooch, again raising ethical questions about the practice of pet cloning. Headed by a former stem-cell researcher named Woo-Suk Hwang, the Sooam Biotech Research Foundation has been cloning dogs and other animals for years, mostly for U.S. customers.
Now, in an effort to expand into the British market, the lab has asked U.K. canine owners to submit a 500-word essay, along with photos and videos, demonstrating why their best friend's genes should live on, Sooam researcher Hanna Heejin Song wrote in an email to LiveScience. The chosen dog owner gets 70% off the usual $100,000 price tag for replicating Rufus.
DOG CLONING MYTHS This material proudly presented by WWW.FDA.GOV
Myth: Cloning is a new technology. Actually, cloning isn't new at all. In fact, we eat fruit from plant clones all the time, in the form of bananas and grafted fruits. We have been cloning plants for decades, except that we refer to it as "vegetative propagation." It takes about 30 years to breed a banana from seed, so, to speed the process of getting fruit to market, most bananas, potatoes, apples, grapes, pears, and peaches are from clones. Some animals can reproduce themselves by vegetative propagation, including starfish and other relatively simple sea creatures. Amphibians such as frogs first underwent cloning in the 1950s. Identical twin mammals can be thought of as naturally occurring clones, but producing clones of mammals in the laboratory is relatively new. Using cells from animal embryos to make clones has been has been around since the early 1990s, but the first animal cloned from a cell from an adult animal was Dolly the sheep, who was born in 1996.
Myth: Clones are a specific animal's DNA grafted onto another body. Absolutely not. Despite science fiction books and movies, clones are born just like any other animal. The only difference is that clones don't require a sperm and egg to come together to make an embryo. Clone embryos are made by using a whole cell or cell nucleus from a donor animal and fusing it to an egg cell that's had its nucleus removed. That embryo is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate dam - a livestock term that breeders use to refer to the female parent of an animal, to grow just as if it came from embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization.
Myth: Offspring of clones are clones, and each generation gets weaker and weaker and has more and more problems. No, not at all. A clone produces offspring by sexual reproduction just like any other animal. A farmer or breeder can use natural mating or any other assisted reproductive technology, such as artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization to breed clones, just as they do for other farm animals. The offspring are not clones, and are the same as any other sexually-reproduced animals.
Myth: Clones are always identical in looks. Not necessarily. In fact, many clones have slight variations in coat color and markings. Let's think about the identical twin calves again. They have the same genes, but look a little different. That's because of the way those genes are expressed - that is, how the information in that gene is seen in the actual animal. For example, if they are Holstein cows, the pattern of their spots, or the shape of their ears may be different. Human identical twins also have the same genes, but because those genes are expressed differently in each person, they have different freckle and fingerprint patterns.
Myth: Clones have exactly the same temperament and personality as the animals from which they were cloned. Temperament is only partly determined by genetics - a lot has to do with the way an animal has been raised. It's the old "nature versus nurture" argument. Say you want to clone your horse because of his gentle and sweet temperament. Although your horse's clone may be easy-going, he would have to have exactly the same life experiences as your original horse in order to have the same temperament. Your original horse isn't afraid of loud noises because his experiences have taught him that they won't hurt him. But if your clone has a bad experience with loud noises - for instance, a tree branch falls on him in a loud thunderstorm and hurts him, he may associate loud noises with pain and be afraid of them.
Myth: When clones are born, they are the same age as their donors, and don't live long. Clones are born the same way as other newborn animals: as babies. No one really knows what causes aging in mammals, but most scientists think it has to do with a part of the chromosome called a telomere that functions as a kind of clock in the cell. Telomeres tend to be long at birth, and shorten as the animal ages. A study on Dolly, the famous sheep clone, showed that her telomeres were the shorter length of her (older) donor, even though Dolly was much younger. Studies of other clones have shown that telomeres in clones are shorter in some tissues in the body, and are age-appropriate in other tissues. Still other studies of clones show that telomeres are age-appropriate in all of the tissues. Despite the length of telomeres reported in different studies, most clones appear to be aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008.
Myth: Cloning results in severely damaged animals that suffer, and continue to have health problems all their lives. The vast majority of swine and goat clones are born healthy, grow normally, and are no more susceptible to health problems than their non-clone counterparts. During the early days of what is known as assisted reproductive technologies in livestock, veterinarians noticed that some calf and lamb fetuses grew too large during pregnancy, and had serious birth defects. This set of abnormalities is referred to as "large offspring syndrome," or LOS. These same abnormalities have also been seen in calf and lamb clones, and have received a lot of attention because they occur at what appear to be higher rates than observed with other assisted reproductive technologies. The syndrome seems to be related to processes that take place outside the body, during the in vitro phase. As producers understand more about the cloning process, the rate at which LOS is observed in calf and lamb clones has been decreasing. LOS hasn't been seen in swine or goat clones. Most clones that are normal at birth become as strong and healthy as any other young animals. Calf and lamb clones with abnormalities at birth may continue to have health problems for the first few months of life. But after the age of six months, they're completely indistinguishable in appearance and blood measurements from conventionally bred animals of the same age.
>Myth: Scientists can bring back extinct species by cloning them. Although it's theoretically possible, at this time it's not very likely to happen any time soon. Although there are efforts of individuals to "de-extinct" extinct species, the approaches used are much more sophisticated than simple cloning, and require reassembly of the genomes of the extinct species by using the closest living relatives as a template. So although it's possible, we wouldn't expect that you'd see this at this time or in the near future. Well, okay, but how about cloning endangered species? That's not only possible, but it's been done in some limited cases. Scientists have cloned sheep from very small populations, members of rare cattle breeds, and the gaur and banteng, two species closely related to domesticated cattle species.
1)Tiny Market Given how few people want to clone a dog when priced at zero, the market for dog cloning is at best a specialized niche. In a niche market, if one cannot capture a reasonably high price for each order, that market is not worth pursuing.
2)Unethical, Black Market Competition Many companies and individualists around the world raised the red flag about pet cloning being unethical.
3)Weak IP - Cloned Dogs Identification Start Licensing is, in our experience, a paper kitten, and without meaningful IP we can't function in the dog cloning market.
4)Unscalable Bioethics For every dog cloned in the future, it's likely that a dozen or more will be slaughtered for food as a direct result.
5)Unpredictable Results Cloning is still an experimental technology and consumers would be well-advised to proceed cautiously.
6)Distraction Factor - Sales Overestimated At this point, pet cloning represents more distraction than opportunity
On March 13, 2016, Seoul National University College of Veterinary Medicine acknowledged that the world's first cloned dog, Snuppy, died in May of last year after celebrating his 10th birthday. Snuppy, whose name is a combination of "SNU" and "puppy," was born on April 24, 2005, as the result of the research led by HWANG Woo-Suk, a former SNU professor of biotechnology. The male Afghan hound was created through two years and eight months of research that began in August 2002. When Hwang's previous works on stem cell research were revealed to be fabricated, Professor LEE Byeong-Cheon replaced his position as team leader, after other scientists confirmed that Snuppy was authentically cloned.
The somatic cell cloning technique used to create Snuppy was similar to the one that created Dolly, the cloned sheep, in 1996. A team of 45 scientists took a piece of tissue from the ear of a 3-year-old Afghan hound, manipulated it into 1,095 embryos, which were implanted into 123 surrogate mothers. Such efforts led to three pregnancies, but one ended in a miscarriage and the other died of pneumonia shortly after its birth. As a result, Snuppy was the only successfully cloned dog that lived a normal lifespan. Before Snuppy's birth, scientists worldwide had already succeeded in cloning other animals such as cats, pigs, horses and sheep, with Dolly being the first cloned mammal. However, dogs were considered very difficult to clone because a female canine ovulates only twice a year and canine egg cells are not mature at the time of ovulation. Hwang's research team was able to overcome this difficulty by determining the exact period and location of egg cells as they mature inside the body, as well as devising a method to mature canine embryos outside the ovary.
Snuppy's creation was met with much praise in the academia, receiving public recognition as the "most amazing invention of 2005" according to Time magazine. Especially because dogs have many illnesses in common with humans, successful canine cloning as demonstrated through Snuppy meant that scientists would eventually be able to develop models to cure human diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, Snuppy's relatively long lifespan proved that cloned animals can live as long as natural-born ones. Snuppy also gave birth to ten puppies through an artificial insemination procedure with other cloned female dogs, thereby demonstrating that cloned animals have normal reproductive functions. Professor Lee announced that his team is aiming to create Snuppy's clone later this year, by applying the same cloning technique to Snuppy's somatic cell, which is currently stored in liquid nitrogen. For a dog, Snuppy lived an average lifespan, contradicting some claims that clones do not live as long as their naturally born counterparts. An exact cause of death was not given.
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