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Dogs age at different rates compared to humans, but the simple rule of 7 dog years to 1 human year is far from accurate. If humans aged seven times slower than dogs, then many of us would be able to reproduce at age 7 and live to be 150. Obviously that's not the case. The reason that dogs can reach full sexual maturity after only a year is that our canine friends age faster during the first two years of their lives than humans do. Even this general statement is slightly off since smaller breeds tend to mature faster than larger breeds. Compared to humans, dogs age more quickly at the beginning of their lives and slower toward the end. Therefore, calculating your dog's age relative to yours is a bit tricky, but luckily it's possible.
Since smaller breeds tend to live longer than larger breeds, it's important to calculate your dog's age according to the right category: small (20 pounds or less), medium (21-50 pounds), large (51-90 pounds), or giant (over 90 pounds).
Although the origins of the seven year myth is unknown, people have been trying to find a good way to calculate dog years in human years since the 1200s. One of the earliest examples of this is an inscription at Westminster Abbey that dates to the year 1268 and calculates that one human year is equivalent to nine dog years, which was part of some strange way to calculate the end of the world in the 1200s. The seven year rule is thought to much more recent.
A veterinarian at Kansas State University told The Wall Street Journal: "My guess is it was a marketing ploy. It was a way to encourage owners to bring in their pets at least once a year."
DOG vs HUMAN AGEING COMPARISON This article is proudly presented by WWW.VCAHOSPITALS.COM and Lynn Buzhardt
You watch your young pup bounce across the lawn. You see your old dog lumber slowly to the food bowl. You take a brisk run with your young dog close at your heels. You slowly walk to the mailbox and your old dog still lags behind. What a difference a few years make to your dog. You do not feel older, so why does your dog? Perhaps it is because what you and your dog consider "old" are vastly different.
Comparing your human age to your furry friend's canine age is rather complicated, but, simply put, one year to Fido is not one year to you. The most common theory comparing human and canine ages uses this equation: Dog years X 7 = Human years. This simple equation is only a rough estimate. A more accurate comparison of human vs. canine age takes into consideration the dog's size and breed.
Dogs develop more quickly the first two years of life, after which development levels out a bit. Smaller dogs age more slowly and have longer life spans. Larger dogs age more quickly and have shorter life spans. In addition, certain breeds enjoy more longevity than others.
When comparing size, small Poodles live longer than huge Great Danes. But when comparing breed, Great Danes outlive mid-sized Bulldogs. So the 7 to 1 ratio does not hold across the board. Another factor that skews age calculation involves the rate of canine development. Dogs develop more quickly the first two years of life, after which development levels out a bit. During the first two years, one dog year equals about 10.5 human years.
All of these calculations are based on the assumption that the average human life expectancy in developed countries is 80 years. The average life span globally is only 66 years. So the equations have to be altered according to geography. Complicated enough for you?
Complications in comparing dog age to human age are well founded. The old 7 dog years = 1 human year theory is inaccurate because the dog ages and develops more quickly the first two years of life. Plus the ratio varies with dog breed and size. Even the more accepted equation utilizing the 10.5 factor the first two years of the dog's life and 4 years thereafter has pitfalls because it does not account for size and breed.
The more accurate estimate of a dog's age in human years is calculated taking size and breed into consideration. This method either categorizes dogs as small, medium, and large or more specifically uses their estimated adult weight. What is consistent is the fact that dogs age more rapidly than their owners do.
Emotional Ageing To further complicate the issue, emotional maturity does not align with physical maturity. Emotional maturity occurs over an extended period of time. For example, a 21 year old human is considered an adult, but may not reach emotional maturity until age 40 or so. The same applies to dogs. Even though a nine month old pup may be socially and sexually active, full maturity is not achieved until age 3 or 4. That is why 2 year old Labradors still chew your favorite slippers!
When is senior status conferred? For humans, some people consider 55 year olds to be senior citizens. Others delay imposing that status until 65 years. Canine senior status varies, too. Small dogs are considered senior citizens of the canine community when they reach 11 years of age. Their medium sized friends become seniors at 10 years of age. Their larger sized colleagues are seniors at 8 years of age. And, finally, their giant-breed counterparts are seniors at 7 years old. So a Great Dane becomes a senior citizen far earlier than a Pomeranian.
With age comes lots of loss, but there is also a lot of fulfillment looking back on a life (human or canine) that was well-lived. So forget about the equations. The joy you share with your pet should never get old.
Play Face Because this display represents more confidence in the dog-whereas the submissive grin suggests little, this behavior is known to progress in intensity and positivity into a more playful and happy countenance: the play face.
The "play face" expression is an intensification of the greeting grin (Fox 1972, Fox 1977). The ears are erect and forward, anatomy permitting, and panting may occur. At the same time, the tail is often high and wagging while the front is in the play bow (Fox 1972).
Mimic Grin A few dogs that are passively submissive will show the "mimic grin" facial expression (left, Beaver 1981). The expression is easily confused with an aggressive one because of the bared teeth, but with the mimic grin, all other body signals indicate submission.
The Greeting Grin Greeting Grin which is distinguished by lacking the display of teeth. Because of this, the Greeting Grin is rarely misinterpreted by laymen as a canine "smile."
The "greeting grin" is associated with active submission. This facial expression resembles a human smile, with the corners of the mouth pulled back. It is seen only in human-dog interactions, not in dog-dog ones (Fox 1976).
This is the most appropriate behavior that humans should associate with "smiling" in dogs. Note that the mouth is open but the lips are not retracted in a way to bare the front teeth, the whisker pad is relaxed, the brow is not furrowed, the ears are active and forward, and the tail is engaged. The dog is not sending mixed signals and is truly at ease and inviting positive interactions without fear. By its effect, the play face is a distance reducing behavior: come play with me!. This behavior is often coupled with the "play bow."
Agonistic Pucker: This behavior falls in the dominant, aggressive, and agonistic type of signals. In the case of canine interactions "agonistic" is most often used to refer to aggressive behavior but can also include behaviors related to dominance displays, submission, and defensiveness. During an agonistic pucker, the canid's lips are drawn away from the teeth exposing the incisors and canine teeth, the skin above and to the sides of the nasal plane wrinkles, the corners of the mouth are drawn forward shortening the commissures, the tongue may be drawn back in preparation for a bite, or it may protrude to create a combination of an agonistic pucker with a tongue flick/distancing signal.
Behaviors and emotions are complex and stochastic, they are not always deterministic and unique and monotonic. What appears to be the same behavior can be sending different messages depending on the context and combination of other signals. Dogs can and do send mixed signals. The first lesson we need to learn, however is that we can and should not anthropomorphise our dog's behaviors because we think they look like something we understand more clearly in human behavior.
Beyond simply being hairy, smelly love machines, a growing body of research shows that dogs may be even more in tune with us than we previously thought. So, why our relationship with dogs seems so uncomplicated?
Dogs read our body language Human babies understand that pointing and gaze direction are indications of what's going in another person's mind. To examine whether this skill is learned or inborn, research has explored these capabilities in our closest evolutionary relatives - chimpanzees and bonobos. The classic test is to hide a treat in one of two locations then point to where it is. Children from just over a year old will have no difficulty recognising this signal and will come and claim it. Chimps do no better than randomly choosing between the two locations, completely ignoring the cue. Given that chimps seem to struggle with this task, it was widely assumed that it couldn't possibly have evolved in other, "lower" animals. Do this experiment with your cat and she will probably gaze uncomprehendingly at your finger for a while.
Imagine researchers' great surprise then when it was revealed that dogs, who are miles away from us on the evolutionary tree, passed this task with flying colours. Hide a treat in one of two locations and point at it and dogs will reliably bound over and gobble it up, even when the treats don't smell of anything. Not only that! If you stand a long distance away and point, dogs will unfailingly go to the right location. If you simply bow or nod in that direction, they get it. If you look at one hiding place rather than another, they get it. Perhaps most impressively, if you walk in one direction and point in the other, they still get it.
Dogs know what grabs our attention Another test of mind reading ability is knowing what someone is paying attention to. Given the option of begging food from two people, one who has seen where the food is hidden and one who has a bucket on his head chimps will randomly go to either one. Dogs, on the other hand, will consistently choose the person who can see. If you have a dog you can try this yourself. Throw a ball and then turn away and the dog will almost invariably come round and drop the ball in front of you, where you can see it. This indicates that dogs are not just playing with their humans, they are also keeping track of what their humans are looking at and how best to get their attention. This sort of gaze reading ability can take months to develop in young children and may never develop in inhuman primates.
Dogs love us Like cats, dogs also seem to form strong emotional attachments to their owners in much the same way as human babies do to their mothers. The typical test of babies' attachment is to plonk them down in an unfamiliar environment and see how they fare. If babies have a strong emotional attachment to their mothers they will explore the new environment, returning to her regularly for reassurance, get terribly upset if she leaves the room but be quickly consoled when she returns. Dogs show an almost identical pattern of responses with respect to their owners. Sniffing about, returning to the owner, pawing the door and whining when the owner leaves followed by exuberant greetings on their return. Like babies they are distrustful of strangers in the room with them and tend to show signs of increasing distress the longer their owner is away.
Dogs listen to us Finally there is some evidence that a couple of precocious pooches may have that most quintessential of human skills, comprehending language. Rico, a border collie, has been shown to differentiate at least 200 different labels for objects, an astonishing vocabulary for a canine. Chaser, another collie, understands more than 1,000 different words! Both will bring you the toy you ask for from a huge selection and will do so even if you instruct them out of sight. This means they are not simply picking up on unconscious not verbal signals. If you present these dogs with a familiar toy and a new object, then ask them to fetch the "dax" (a word they won't have heard before), they will reliably bring you the new toy rather than one they already know the name for.
This sort of inference is called "fast-mapping" and is thought to be the skill that underlies human children's astonishing speed of language acquisition in early childhood. But even human children don't show this ability to the same degree as Rico and Chaser until about 2-3 years of age. That dogs are so surprisingly proficient at reading human communication might come as no surprise to dog owners but has been something of a revelation for psychologists interested in how these skills have evolved. What is especially surprising is that they seem much less developed in our closest genetic relatives, inhuman primates for humans and wolves for dogs. So these skills cannot be explained by any simple evolutionary model or by straightforward pack behaviour.
What we are finding is that the rudiments of what we thought of as particularly human social skills may have their roots much further back in evolution than previously expected. Alternatively, they may have evolved in different species independently. What seems increasingly clear is that dogs have maintained the reputation of being "man's best friend" not simply through our own benevolence but also through developing an impressive set of social skills that make them ever-sensitive to our whims and fancies.
There are an enormous amount of traits that humans and animals share - this is because of the evolutionary process of inheriting characteristics and traits from successive generations that all lead back to a common ancestor. Humans and animals share the same basic muscles and bones, but they appear at different sizes, proportion and ratios based on the animal.
Bipeds are animals that traverse their environment on two legs, like us humans. Quadrupeds are animals that use four limbs to travel around like dogs, horses, cows, cats, and many other four limbed mammals. In terms of locomotion, evolution has developed two very common forms of movement using the same muscles and bones. As shown below, humans and dogs share the same groups of bones and muscles even though they have completely different forms of locomotion. In diagram A, a human man is shown next to a dog, the bones are highlighted on each animal and they are shown to be the same bone but in different proportions and ratios. What many people would think to be a dog's upper leg is actually its lower leg, and what many people think is it slower leg is actually the equivalent of a human palm.
Using the same two animals as a comparison, human hands and dog paws when seen side by side share the exact same bones in different places. As seen in diagram B the thumb of the human is a vestigial part of the dog's foot, meaning a mutation from a previous ancestor that still appears in subsequent generations but is no longer used for the same purpose. In the comparison shown below in diagram C, the same bones shared between humans, large cats, and horses are pointed out, it is clear that many mammals have very similar skeletal structures regardless of their form of locomotion. Like the common misconception about dogs, the upper leg of most quadrupeds is hidden behind layers of muscle and fat, this is why colour coded Skelton diagrams are the most digestible forms of delivering information about the similarities and differences between human and animal anatomy.
Another very interesting area of anatomy that shares similarities and differences across multiple different species types is the bones of the hand. The human hand can be seen in many other animals such as bats, birds whales, horses, cats and other mammals. The diagram below shows how the same bones are reconfigured in other species to suit different purpose, including completely different types of locomotion including deep sea diving and swimming and even flight. It is interesting to see how the bones that we would see as the fingers can be fused together to create bird wings, or they can splay out to create bat wings. In the example of the horse, the "foot" of the horse that the hoof appears on is actually just one "finger" bone.
The memory of dogs is more human-like than previously thought, allowing our furry pals to copy our actions, even after delays. Can dogs reminisce down memory lane like we do? Good question! Before we can answer that, we'll have to ask whether dogs have long term memory - that is, any information stored in the brain for more than a few minutes that can be recalled or referenced when it's needed later on. Dogs do not have our capability to make valued judgments, string ideas together, or recall incidents that happened even a few minutes before hand - DOGS LIVE IN THE PRESENT.
Dogs can't mentally "time travel" backward and forward. Humans can consciously and willfully think back to specific memories and anticipate events. Animals cannot.
Like humans and other animals, a dog's brain is being continually bombarded with information it receives from its senses - sight, sound, smell, taste and touch. The brain has to make sense of all this information and decide what needs to be retained in its memory, and which can be forgotten. Yet as we ourselves know, the brain does not store ALL this information - it would be impossible! Instead, the brain uses "filter systems" so that the creature can differentiate what are important memories (particularly those where safety or rewarding events happen or those that are threatening or unpleasant, that need to be stored for future use and those experiences and memories which can be discarded and forgotten. Because dogs brains are not as complex as our own, Nature has given them the capacity to make split-second decisions on what is important enough to retain in its memory, and what can be discarded and forgotten.
Episodic Memory Dogs live in the moment. They are not able to travel through time in their memories the same way humans do. Our memories of past events are called Episodic Memories. You may sit down and think - what did I do yesterday after I got home from work?, But your dog can't think back and say, "It's been two days since you took me to the dog park, I think I'm due for an outing!, Because dogs ca not conceptualize a "past" (episodic memories) or a "future" (theoretical situations based on past events), they are completely focused on the present moment.
So, if dogs don't experience time, how is it that they seem to "know" when certain things will happen, like walks and feedings? What we perceive as the dog "remembering" is often your dogs' natural rhythms moving him into different states of being. For instance, you feed your dog at the same time every day. When dinnertime comes and he goes to his bowl but it hasn't been filled, he comes to nudge and whimper. This isn't because he "remembered" that it's dinnertime, but that his internal clock's timer went off, so he expected food.
In defining episodic memory, Endel Tulving argued that it is unique to humans. Experience influences all animals. Most mammals and birds can build complex sets of knowledge or semantic memory. You and I also remember the experience of learning these complex sets of information. Dogs don't. It's fair to say that explicit memory is most highly developed in humans. Pets probably don't do much of the episodic or autobiographical parts. This means we don't think animals remember specific events or moments unless they are associated with something else.
Episodic remembering is mental time travel and depends on a few crucial cognitive capabilities. First, in order to experience episodic remembering, an individual must have a sense of self. Most non-human animals have a dramatically different experience of self than we do. For example, most animals (and young humans) fail to identify themselves in mirrors. If I look in a mirror and see that I have something stuck between my teeth, I try to correct the problem. In contrast, put a red dot on a child's forehead, put the child in front of a mirror, and watch what happens. Young children are more likely to reach for the baby in the mirror than for their own foreheads. Dogs treat the dog in the mirror as another dog; not as themselves. Most animals fail at the red dot mirror task. Because they lack episodic memory, they can't recall what occurred just before the present moment and constantly feel like they just woke up.
Spatial Memory Spatial memory is the ability to recall where things are located and how a location is arranged. For example, imagine you took your dog for a long walk and when you returned home, your spouse had rearranged all the furniture in the living room. If your dog walked into the living room and looked around inquisitively, then sniffed all the furniture, this indicates that she has a spatial memory of your living room and she noticed the changes your spouse made to this space. Your dog's ability to recognize that a room she knows has changed is evidence that she has long-term memory.
A self concept is not, however, enough to ensure episodic remembering. Mental time travel is the other critical cognitive capability. I understand that yesterday is different from today and that tomorrow will be different as well. We realize that when we remember, the mental experience is a disjointed slice of time. Thus episodic remembering is the combination of a self concept and mental time travel: recollecting the self in that other time period. Mental time travel also enables planning for the future. Dogs don't plan for particular future events although they have a general expectation of when dinner will appear.
Procedural Memory Your dog remembers his training, not because he can recall the specific instances when you told him to sit, lie down and stay, but because his brain develops connections that remain after the training. For example, if you are training your dog to shake, and you give him a treat every time he puts his paw in your hand, his brain makes the connection that giving his paw gets him food. Then, when you ask your dog for his paw later, these connected neurons fire, and he completes the task. Your dog obeys because his brain has wired itself to respond in the way that gets him what he wants a treat, not because he recalled a conscious memory and made a decision to follow the command. This kind of memory is called "procedural memory," and humans have it, too. It's what we use when we do routine things we no longer have to think about, like tying our shoes or brushing our teeth. Dogs may be predisposed to first observe humans, then encode and remember human actions if doing so is beneficial for them. The scientists suppose that dogs use their memory of human actions in their everyday life with humans, to learn about behaviors that may convey advantages or rewards and also to fine tune their behavior to that of the humans living with them.
Declarative Memory The ability to encode and recall an action after a delay implies that the dogs have a mental representation of the human demonstration. In addition, the ability to imitate a novel action after a delay without previous practice suggests the presence of a specific type of long-term memory in dogs. This would be so-called declarative memory, which refers to memories which can be consciously recalled, such as facts or knowledge.
The discovery, outlined in the latest issue of Animal Cognition, means that dogs possess what's known as "declarative memory," which refers to memories which can be consciously recalled, such as facts or knowledge. Humans, of course, have this ability, as anyone playing a trivia game demonstrates. But it had never fully been scientifically proven in dogs before, although dog owners and canine aficionados have likely witnessed the skill first-hand for years.
Dog Time Concept In trying to understand dogs' concept of time, humans cannot help but reference their own concept of time. But that's tricky since humans have the unique ability to construct artificial measures of time such as the second, minute, and hour. This is mainly because humans use episodic memory in order to travel through time, recalling past events and looking forward to future ones. It's what many scientists believe makes humans unique.
But just because dogs don't perceive time in this way doesn't mean they are completely stuck in the moment, as a lot of the research on this subject would suggest. Dogs are capable of being trained based on past events and taught to anticipate future events based on past experiences. This argues in favor of a kind of canine version of episodic memory, according to researches.
The essential difference appears to be that humans can pinpoint when something happened in the past by relating it to other events. For example, we remember our wedding day as well as who attended, what songs were played, and the happiness we felt. Dogs, on the other hand, can only distinguish how much time has passed since an event has occurred -"My food bowl has been empty for six hours." Of course, they don't need only memory to tell them this, but a growling stomach says it all.
Separation Anxiety vs Time There is also research evidence for dogs' understanding of the concept of time based on changes in their behavior when left alone by their human companions for different lengths of time. Studies show that dogs display greater affection toward their owners if they've been separated for longer periods of time. As the amount of time away increases, so does the dogs' excitement. This will come as no surprise to dog owners - most canines get excited about the return of the master to the castle, especially after long absences. But this research is also important because it shows that dogs are capable of recognizing and responding to different spans of time.
For dogs that suffer from separation anxiety, the difference between one and five hours can mean the difference between mild agitation and a full-blown panic attack. Separation anxiety in dogs is often expressed as barking, howling, whining, chewing digging, pacing, scratching, and/or urinating and defecating in inappropriate places while an owner is away or upon his or her return.
Start by introducing your puppy to other humans in a comfortable environment. Your own home is ideal so that your dog is not overwhelmed by new people and a new environment at the same time. Start with family members or other people that your dog already feels relaxed around. Get your dog used to calmly going up to someone with words of encouragement like, "Go say hello to dad!" Keep repeating this exercise and be sure to reward your dog with a treat when they obey. However, do not reward actions such as jumping up on other people, barking, or any other undesirable behavior.
It is a good idea to start your puppy socialization program by aiming to meet one new person two or three times a week. Dogs are not very good at generalization, and your little guy won't necessarily recognize a very tall man with a hat as being of the same species as a short lady wearing a dress! Someone who looks different to the other people he is used to seeing, may be perceived as threatening or scary. Make sure your pup has positive experiences with all of these:
Children (including Toddlers & Babies if possible)
Teenagers and Young Adults
Handicapped People & Equipment
Men with Beards, Mustache or Facial Hair
People Wearing Hats
People with Different Color Skin and Complexion
Men with Deep Voices
Women & Children with High Voices
Women, Girls with flowing Skirts
APPROACHING YOUR PUP When people approach your puppy, it is essential that they do not bend over him, as that could be very frightening for a tiny pup. Also, do not allow people to pick the puppy up and cuddle him. That could be a very scary experience for a young puppy, especially if he is shy. Always allow your puppy to approach other people, not the other way around. Watch for signs of anxiety in your puppy such as avoiding eye contact, backing away, or clamping his tail to his backside. A happy puppy will always stand upright, probably with their tail wagging! Try not to use food when you introduce your puppy to new people as he could learn to associate people with food and may begin to scrounge or jump up.
SOCIALIZING TO MEN,
WOMEN AND CHILDREN
A good rule of thumb is to allow your puppy to meet 100 men, women and children by 16 weeks of age. Meeting the same person repeatedly does not count as the puppy will only socialize to that particular individual. Be sure to make allowances to meet different ethnic groups, different sizes and shapes and different ages of individuals. It is relatively easy to socialize a puppy to women as women are much more likely to walk right up to a strange puppy and coo and coddle him. Men are more likely to admire an adorable pup from a distance and children can sometimes be hard to find. Below are some clever places to go to find those elusive men and children. When you get there, proactively ask the men and the children to meet your puppy - now is not the time to be shy!
Children Linger in the parking lot or close to the entrance and bring treats that the children can offer to your puppy. Bring one or two small plush toys to put into the puppy's mouth while he is greeting the children to prevent him from accidentally mouthing a child.
Across the Street from any School when School is Starting or Ending
Ice Cream Shops
Entrance to Movie Theaters
Playgrounds - keep puppy at a safe distance!
Athletic Fields and Courts
Men Home Depot or Lowe's - Visit the contractor entrance early in the morning to see uniforms and lots of trucks too!
Hotels linger by the Entrance
Gyms linger by the Entrance
Sporting Goods Stores
Car, Bicycle and Motorcycle Stores
Downtown for Morning, Lunch Hours or Evening Rush Hour
People of all Shapes,
and Nationalities Open Air Shopping Centers
Outdoor Cafes and Coffee Houses
City Parks that allow leashed dogs
Hotels linger by the Entrance
The Parking Lot or Entrance of any Grocery Store or Mall
Schools and Churches - be across the street when school or church lets out and let puppy watch all the action and meet and greet the people.
PAIR PEOPLE WITH TREATS
1. - Recruit as many family members, friends and dog lovers as you can to help you.
2. - Working one at a time, have someone toss treats to your dog from a distance your dog is comfortable with whenever they are being quiet or calm. Have the person ignore your dog - other than tossing the treats, while they do this.
3. - When your dog is completely comfortable with the person at the current distance, have the person toss the treats slightly closer so that your dog must come nearer to them to get the treats. Go slow with this - gauge your dog's reactions. Avoid encouraging your dog to approach too closely before they feel comfortable to avoid any potential fear biting.
4. - When your dog willingly goes up to the person, even without the person tossing food to lure them in, the person can have your dog perform commands or tricks and reward them for their obedience with the food.
5. - Once your dog is comfortable with one person, move on to another friend and have that person practice the same training, starting from the beginning again. Your dog will need to warm up to multiple people gradually to learn that all people are safe.
6. - In general, you can also offer your dog a treat while they are calm around people they spot in public - walks are common examples of this. Keep enough space between you and the other person for your dog to be successful and remain calm. Keep your attitude calm and confident, too.
PAIR PEOPLE WITH FUN
1. - Use toys in place of treats as a reward for calm behavior around people.
2. - If your dog loves to play fetch, have a friend play with them, but you be the one to take the ball from your dog and hand it to your friend to throw again until your dog is completely comfortable with the person.
3. - If your dog enjoys walks, have a friend go on a walk with you. At first, have your friend stay far enough away for your dog to relax around them. Keep the walk structured, and reward your dog for calmness and focus on you. When your dog becomes comfortable around the person at the current distance, decrease the amount of space between your dog and the other person gradually over time. Expect this to take several sessions before the person can walk within 5 feet of your dog.
4. - If your dog has a canine buddy, let your dog watch the other dog interact with your friend. Have the other dog perform tricks and commands for your friend, play games, like fetch, with them, and go for walks with them while you follow behind with your dog.
5. - Teach your dog commands like "Say hi" and "Touch." Practice those commands with people your dog knows and have those people reward your dog heavily for obeying the commands. Once your dog can perform the new commands with friends and if your dog is only mildly shy: practice the new commands with a calm person your dog does not know. Have the new person stand still and stay calm while your dog performs the command. If your dog has any aggressive tendencies, do not practice these up-close commands yet.
Human Vs. Dog: Who Is Faster? Can a human run faster than a dog? Many experts say it depends on the person and the breed. Some dogs can easily beat the human, either at sprints or long distances. The main thing is that a trained person can run for hundreds of miles and animals can't.
The fastest man Usain Bolt's average ground speed equates to 23.35 mph - 23.72 mph. While the fastest dog Greyhound can outrun Usain, as its average racing speed is 39 mph. The key to the Greyhound's speed lies in its muscular build, large heart and the extreme flexibility of the spine. Experts explain that dogs have four legs and use the rear legs to push forward, they cover more ground on four legs than humans do on two legs.
These are the reasons why an average dog will likely be faster than an average person. Running is in their nature. By the way, that was the reason why people started using dogs for hunting.
There is enough data from numerous dog racing and coursing events to allow us to compare the performance of Greyhounds to human world record holders in a number of track events.
Usain Bolt holds the world record for the 100-meter race at 9.58 seconds.
A Greyhound has been measured doing that same distance in 5.02 seconds.
Usain Bolt also holds the world record for the 200-meter race at 19.19 seconds, as compared to the Greyhound who requires only 10.35 seconds cover the distance.
Michael Johnson holds the record for the 400-meter race at 43.18 seconds, which is considerably slower than a Greyhound who completes it in 21.10 seconds.
David Rudisha's 800-meter record of one minute and 41 seconds pales in comparison to the 50-second time for the Greyhound.
Hicham El Guerrouj's 1,500-meter record of three minutes and 26 seconds is sluggish in comparison to the one minute and 43 seconds time for a Greyhound.
Kenenisa Bekele holds the record for the 5,000-meter race at 12 minutes 37 seconds, while the Greyhound covers that distance in barely half the time at six minutes 19 seconds.
Kenenisa Bekele also holds the record for the 10,000-meter race at 26 minutes 18 seconds, while Greyhound can cover that distance in a mere 13 minutes and nine seconds
So if dogs were allowed to compete in the Olympics against humans, based on the existing data available to us, it seems likely that the only field event that humans would definitely win would be the high jump, while the long jump would be a hard fought competition with a slight edge for the dog. However on the track, in all of the purely running events, ranging from the 100 meter dash all the way up through the marathon, the gold medals would clearly go to the dogs. In fact, in the marathon, after crossing the finish line the dog would have time for a half hour long nap before it's world record holding human competitor would complete his run.
Here's the myth that makes dogs sound like a dental miracle: Despite all the leftover macaroni, rubber bands and dead squirrels they chew, our canine friends still maintain better oral hygiene than human beings do, no matter how studiously we floss and how often we visit our dentists.
Could this really be true? Well, sadly, no. In short, a dog's mouth is besieged by its own legions of germs, roughly as huge in population as those living in the human mouth and causing a similar array of dental illnesses.
"It's like comparing apples and oranges," says Colin Harvey, a professor of surgery and dentistry at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine. He is also the executive secretary at the American Veterinary Dental College. Although there's a vast overlap of bacteria in the mouths of both species, Harvey considers the question of which one is cleaner to be irrelevant because a) both are teeming with microbes, and b) in many cases, a dog's dental bacteria differ from their human counterparts.
One example is the Porphyromonas, a family of rod-shaped bacteria known for causing periodontal disease, a serious gum infection that leads to the loosening and, eventually, detachment of teeth in both humans and animals. Scientists have spotted two distinct species within the family: P. gingivalis was found in the human dental plaque, while its sibling, P. gulae, was found in dogs. Both bacteria thrive on periodontal tissues, eating up the gums and reducing well-rooted teeth to shaky cavities.
Although there are no theories so far to correlate breed and a dog's proneness to periodontal disease, small and old dogs generally have higher risks of developing a serious form of the disease.
Another common dental disease in humans, however, has largely spared dogs. Dental caries (tooth decay), which according to a 2003 World Health Organization report may affect 90 percent of schoolchildren around the world, hits only about 5 percent of dogs. As complicated as the reason may be, most scientists, including Harvey, point to the scarcity of a bacterium in dogs' mouths as the major explanation.
The culprit bacterium, S. mutans, eats a big sugar molecule by chopping the sugar into two slightly smaller molecules. This process produces acid as a byproduct. Therefore, the bacterium has evolved to require a slightly acidic habitat, and if lucky, it ends up in the more acidic human mouth rather than the more alkaline dog's mouth.
One of the rumors related to the cleanliness of a dog's mouth is the idea that human bites are more infectious than dog bites. However, this too doesn't hold up to scrutiny. According to Jeein Chung, a veterinarian at Hoboken Animal Hospital in New Jersey, the danger of both human and dog bites depends on the kinds of bacteria in the mouth and the depth of the wound. The bottom line: Cleanse as thoroughly as possible after getting bit, and go to an emergency room if you feel the wound go anywhere beyond the muscles.
If you've ever wondered why you're not supposed to use human shampoo on a dog, the reason is simple - dogs and humans have different skin. I think it helps to know a little how human skin and dog skin are different. Both dogs and humans have a similar skin structure with an epidermis layer and a dermis layer, but we do have significant differences.
The difference between canine and human skin The epidermis is the body's environmental shield that works as a barrier against injury, disease, and damage from ultraviolet light and is constantly replaced. Canine epidermis has a turnover rate of 20 days compared to humans which occurs approximately every 28 days. The epidermis of a dog is 3-5 cells thick however in humans it is at least 10-15 cells thick.
The issue of hair When hair grows in a canine it grows in bundles. When a human hair develops it grows as a solitary hair and continues to grow unlike dog's hair which grows in cycles. When dog hair reaches a certain length determined by the individual dog's genetic makeup, it stops growing, then dies. That's when shedding begins.
A sweaty subject or not? The dog's dermal skin layer has two types of glands that produce fluids. The apocrine glands, which produce sweat in humans, have two other functions in dogs: they help seal the outer layer of the epidermis and they secrete pheromones that give dogs a distinctive body odour. The eccrine glands in the pads of the paws do produce a watery secretion similar human perspiration. This secretion leaves damp pawprints behind nervous or stressed canines and may also improve traction for a quick getaway.
Puppies have 28 baby teeth while human babies will have 20 deciduous or "baby" teeth. The average adult dog has 42 teeth which is approximately a third more teeth than a human adult possesses. Humans are the only Animals on this Planet that cook their food.
Have you ever seen or known of any Carnivores in the Wild, to cook their Food? No, They hunt and eat their Prey immediately afterwards and will eat every part of their Prey, including Bones, Cartilage and Organs. Carnivores' Anatomy, which includes Cats and Dogs, has not changed that much over time.
TEETH, JAWS & MOUTHS There are so many reasons why Humans are Different from Carnivores as the list indicates above. One of the clear differences are the Teeth. Carnivores have Sharp Fangs to Tear and Rip their Meat and Swallow their Food in chunks. "Wolf their Food Down" is a saying that literally describes this, since Carnivores do not need to pre-digest their Food at the Mouth level as Humans do with their Mouth Digestive Juices. Carnivores can also open their Mouths much wider than Humans can, in order to be able to lock onto their Prey. Carnivores cannot move their Jaws sideways, but Humans can, as it allows us to Grind our Food to pulp and then liquid format before swallowing. Humans also have blunt-shaped Teeth which helps us break down and Chew our Food. Another reason Humans shouldn't even eat Meat.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Carnivores have an Intestinal Tract that is substantially shorter (approx. 5 feet) vs. Humans' (approx. 25 feet), which means, a Carnivore can complete Digestion in about 3 hours as opposed to a Human Digestive System taking around 15 Hours or more. Also the Digestive Juices in a Carnivore is much Stronger and more Acidic than a Human's, which is Alkaline. Humans need Fibre to stimulate the Intestinal Tract which Carnivores don't. That's why these Dog and Cat Food Manufacturers putting in Fibre and Fillings and Grains does not make sense for our Pets, but does make a lot of Dollars for them.
AMYLASE The human digestive tract averages 30 feet in length. The average length of the dog's digestive tract is 2 feet. Our appendix is actually the remnant of a fermentation system in the large intestine, from when we ate a more herbivorous diet. We don't have those long sharp canine teeth. And if you look at the back of our mouth, you will see the molars are flat. The job of the molars is to crush and grind plant matter. This is why we are classified as omnivores, our teeth tell us we have a dietary need for plant matter.
Dog's teeth & mouth are somewhere between the human teeth, mouth and the cat's teeth and mouth. You might also have noticed that dogs and humans have a lot more teeth than cats too. There is something we humans have in our mouth that neither dogs or cats have - something called salivary amylase. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks complex carbohydrates down into simple sugars.
Try this experiment: hold a piece of bread in your mouth for a few minutes and you will notice it starts to taste sweet. That is amylase converting that bread into sugar. Neither cats or dogs have salivary amylase.
Humans, as well as other omnivores and herbivores, can convert plant based ALA (Alpha-linolenic acid), which is a type of omega-3 fatty acid found in plants, to its useful constituents, EPA and DHA. Dogs can convert approximately 5 to 15 percent.
Dogs have 42 teeth in total, which is 10 times more than the number of teeth humans have. But like us, a dog's teeth can be categorized into four types: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
Incisors: Humans have 8 incisors that we use to bite on our food. Dogs have 12 incisors that they use to rip off meat from the bone. Dogs also use their incisors to groom themselves and get rid of fleas, mites and other foreign objects on their skin and coat.
Canines: Humans have 4 canines which help us tear food apart. Like humans, dogs have 4 canines too, but they are mainly used to puncture things.
Premolars: Our 8 premolars are mainly flat with a few sharp tips. These are used to chew our food. Dogs, on the other hand, have 12 premolars, which are used for shearing or cutting food.
Molars: Including wisdom teeth, humans have a total of 12 molars, which are used to grind food into finer pieces. Our dogs have 10 molars, which serve the same function as human molars - to grind food.
Oral health issues Gum-related infections are one of the most common dental health problems in both humans and dogs. In fact, according to the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 50% of adults aged 30 and up have gum-related issues. Likewise, about 80% of dogs develop signs of gum disease by the age of 3. Gum problems may eventually lead to periodontal disease, an infection that affects structures that hold a tooth in place. In severe cases, bacteria from periodontal disease can affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and may even lead to diseases related to the heart or lungs. Dogs need to have their teeth brushed and cleaned every day using a soft bristle toothbrush and a dog-specific toothpaste that contains no fluoride. At first, it can be difficult to get your dog accustomed to having his teeth and gums touched, but it will all be worth it if he can avoid developing oral problems. Be gentle while brushing his teeth though, to avoid gum scratching and bleeding. Also, it helps to feed your dog with crunchy kibbles that can gently scratch on the surface of his teeth and remove food buildup. Choose dog food brands gourmet-artisan dog food recipes, that are made in small batches to ensure its freshness and the quality of the kibbles' texture.
DOG vs HUMAN TREADMILL This article proudly presented by WWW.DOGTREAD.COM
Why can't I just use a human treadmill? The answer is you can and some do. But before you do, understand there are many differences between a dog treadmill and a human treadmill. You should understand the differences, so you can make the best decision for your dog.
Motor Human treadmill motors typically are built with a large ventilation encasement that allows airflow to cool the motor. A good dog treadmill will usually have the motor located in a separate area or tightly enclosed with an internal cooling system. This helps to prevent dog hair and dirt from entering the motor casing which can cause the treadmill to malfunction. Chances are, when you call a repair person to service the human machine dog hair and other bodily fluids are not covered in the warranty under "normal wear and tear". Even a cleaning kit is not going to take care of all the dog-related happenings that can occur.
Treadmill Belt Human treadmill belts often have a noticeable built-in gap between the side-rails and the edge of the belt. This can be a great hazard for dogs. Small paws, or claws can easily get caught under the belt. A good dog-specific design will ensure the belt is close to the side-rails or edge to prevent this type of situation from happening. If you choose to use a human treadmill for your dog be vigilant to prevent this accident from happening.
Side Rails Most noticeably, human treadmills do not offer side rails, which help in the training process. While it is possible to construct one of your own, good dog treadmills will incorporate safe side panels. These side panels should be sturdy. Side rails constructed of wire grids or open railing can be dangerous. Study them closely. During the initial training stages, some dogs will try to find escape routes and the grid or open railing design can catch paws or worse they may try to squeeze through these areas while the belt is moving.
Running Area Make sure that the treadmill belt has enough room for your dog's longest stride. For many dogs, a human treadmill running surface is not ideal. For larger dogs, it is very important to purchase a dog treadmill with a belt long enough to accommodate your dogs natural gait and to allow a natural drift that takes place, just like it does when your dog runs outside. The speed is not always constant and a longer belt can prevent injury. For small dogs, the larger belt of a human treadmill can be intimidating. A proper fit can make all the difference in your training and their enjoyment of treading.
End Caps Many human treadmills are made with large end caps to cover the frame at the back of the treadmill. These turn into a dangerous place to catch and rip paws and claws. Look for a smooth end-cap that is not likely to hurt your dog if they should exit off the back.
Noise The best dog treadmills are very quiet in design compared to a human treadmill. Many dogs are frightened of the vibrations and noise common with human treadmills. A whisper-quiet design is ideal.
Control Panel Human treadmill control panels are not located in an ideal position when training your dog and do not provide quick and easy access to adjust speed or to stop the treadmill in case of emergency.
Space If space is a concern and you have a smaller dog – a small dog treadmill can be ideal. The compact design is better suited for apartment or small loft living.
A human's brain weights about 3 pounds and is roughly the size of both of your fists placed together side by side. A 45 pound dog has a brain that weighs about 3 to 3 1/2 oz. But despite the size of a dog's brain, they are still incredibly smart. The frontal lobes of a dog are dedicated to smell. This takes up a huge portion of the brain. Despite this, dogs can still learn 150 - 300 words and commands. They can "read" us better than any other animal on earth, and even understand and work with us to achieve common goals.
In the human brain, the olfactory lobe is poorly developed while optic lobe is well developed. In case of other mammals like the dog, the optic lobe is poorly developed while olfactory lobe is well developed.
It all begins with miscommunication, or intention vs. perception. Humans and dogs speak separate languages. People are extremely verbal while dogs are extremely non-verbal. Canine communication consists of eye contact, body language, and reading energy. Have you ever been in the presence of someone that gave you the creeps? You may not have spoken to them but you feel something that makes you uncomfortable? That is energy. It is the feeling or vibration that you get from another being. Humans gained language and storytelling eons ago and as a result our instincts have become very dull. What instincts we do have are mostly within our subconscious. We feel things quietly, intuitively, then we talk ourselves out of it, yet again using words.
The most important law when trying to understand animals, especially canines, is that they love to follow strong and confident personalities. They do not follow marshmallows or super softies. They also do not follow anything that is interpreted as weak or unstable. For example; Are you anxious when your dog is misbehaving? Do you feel sorry for your dog? Or maybe guilty? These emotions are interpreted by dogs and other animals much differently than people. For most people, this can be a difficult concept to grasp in the beginning. But once you begin to see and understand this it all becomes very clear.
Dog Psychology is a whole new world in itself, and is quite different from the way we have all learned to see the world around us. Learning about Dog Psychology is the first step to becoming the dog owner that your dog dreams of. It all begins with miscommunication, or intention vs. perception. Humans and dogs speak separate languages. People are extremely verbal, while dogs are extremely nonverbal. Canine communication consists of eye contact, body language, and reading energy. Have you ever been in the presence of someone that gave you the creeps? You may not have even spoken to them, but you feel something that makes you uncomfortable. That is energy. It is the feeling or vibration that you get from another. Humans gained language and storytelling eons ago and as a result our instincts have become very dull. What instincts we do have are mostly within our subconscious. We feel things quietly, intuitively, then we talk ourselves out of it, yet again using words.
Now, let's discuss the difference between human beings and other animals. For instance, let's say we have a female with a litter of puppies. One of the pups is not strong and is not doing well. What will the mother do? She will push it aside and ignore it. Weak squirrel in the nest? Out. Weak baby bird? Out. Regardless of the animal, they will not foster weakness. It goes against their DNA. A screaming dog in the dog park becomes an instant target. Why? Weakness. There is nothing wrong with this behavior. It is what it means to be a canine. Humans however, will find that weak little pup and be sure to nurse it. If we find the squirrel or bird on the sidewalk, we are ready with the eye dropper and heating pad to rescue it. This is what makes us human, and we are one of the only species that behaves this way. We can think about the differences; dogs cannot. They can not become people, but you can learn to be a bit of a dog.
Applying Dog Psychology The most important law when trying to understand animals, especially canines, is that they love to follow strong and confident personalities. They do not follow marshmallows or super softies, and they also do not follow anything that is interpreted as weak or unstable. For example: Are you anxious when your dog is misbehaving? Do you feel sorry for your dog? Or maybe guilty? These emotions are interpreted by dogs and other animals much differently than people. For most people, this can be a difficult concept to grasp in the beginning, but once you begin to see and understand this it all becomes very clear. So, you must be strong and confident in order to be an effective pack leader to a dog. Therefore we must start with owner: What do you need to work on? Anxiety? Self Esteem? Confidence? Depression? The first thing that we must learn is to become aware of how you are feeling so that we can address any weak areas. Yoga and meditation may be prescribed for people suffering from anxiety or anyone having trouble calming down and focusing. Confidence or self-esteem issues? Martial arts such as Krav Maga can be a super boost to one's confidence.
Your dog needs to know that you know how to lead him. They need to know that you are confident in your decisions and that you can handle whatever the world throws at you. My definition of dominance is the art of leadership. Someone has to make the decisions in the relationshipand it should not be the one with the four legs. Your dog needs for you to learn to be a "loving, benevolent dictator", just like being a great parent to a child. Sensitive and nervous dogs absolutely require you take over for them; you will build an enormous amount of trust with your dog.
If you have a dog with a sharp temperament, he needs someone to set limits with him. Soft personalities are more sensitive and engage in direction more easily. Most people I meet are total marshmallows. You should never be harsh, however you should be firm. Once you decide that you are going to require something or engage in an activity, be sure you follow through. But you must first have a vision of what you want in order for you to know where you are going, and you can’t pass what you do not have. If you want the dogs in your family to respect the children, they must respect you first. Three pillars that are fundamental to success:
1. Patience You must sometimes wait for the dog to learn or deflate. Do not become frustrated.
2. Persistence You must be willing to never accept no as an option. Be calm but firm and always follow through. It gets easier!
3. Consistence Providing rituals and maintaining the same rules from everyone in the family and beyond provides security and stability to your dog.
The difference between blind humans and blind dogs is the degree to which these remaining senses are used. Similar to a blind person, a blind dog must use the senses of touch, hearing and smell to become orientated or determine where it is in a room and to navigate or find its way around. Vision is a key sense for humans, but it's not the main event for dogs. Scent and hearing play bigger roles in how they experience the world, and that's just considering the physical senses. Dogs are masters of empathy, so do your best to keep your spirits up, not matter how you feel about your dog's blindness. Dogs, like people, have a wide array of personalities, quirks, needs and challenges. One challenge some dogs face is blindness. Too many people out there assume that blind dogs are somehow less than their sighted counterparts.
Research from the years 2000 through 2013 on humans & other species showed that many deaf and or blind dogs use secondary ways, alternative modes of sense-perception, that dogs have from birth. Many dogs and a few humans, sense mechanical vibrations (sound) as a coarse kind of "vision" for mapping and getting about safely, at amazing speeds. Dogs can be far more versatile than humans in adapting, but they often need a little time - often months.
THE DEAFNESS: DOG vs HUMAN This article proudly presented by WWW.DOGBREEDINFO.COM and by Laurie Maguire
Deaf dogs get along better than most might think. Why? Dogs view the world very differently than humans. A human communicates in this order: Hearing Seeing Smelling
While a dog communicates in this order: Smelling Seeing Hearing
Depending on the breed, a dog's sense of smell is 1,000 to 10,000 times more sensitive than a human's. A human has 5 million scent glands, as compared to a dog that has 125 million to 300 million. When a dog smells something, it can tell a lot about it. It's almost like reading a book where the object has been, what it has eaten, what it has touched. Deaf dogs rely on their nose and eyes, and those senses become even more sensitive. It is important when grooming a deaf dog not to cut off its whiskers, as dogs use these to sense the distance of things around them.
A dog that is born deaf does not know he is deaf, or rather, he does not know everyone else can hear. To him, the world is what it is. A human who is disabled in some way, in most cases, is very aware of it. Humans have a tendency to dwell on their disability. Dogs do not dwell on what they do not have because they do not think about it that way. They do not sit back and reminisce about the past, or plan for the future. For a dog, it's all about the now and what it is doing at that very moment. Besides the three senses, hearing, seeing and smelling, dogs possess yet another sense we humans lack. Dogs can read energy. If a person is nervous, they know it; if a person is scared, they know it. If a person is feeling sorry, they know it. While they can read these emotions, they read them differently than a human. To a dog, nervous, scared, pity are read as weak. Yes, if you feel pity for a dog it reads it as a weakness in the human.
A dog is an animal that instinctively lives in packs. Within the pack is a hierarchy. The definition of a hierarchy is system of persons or things ranked one above another. When a dog lives with humans, the humans become his pack. Even a family of humans has a hierarchy, in the sense that the parents are above the children, making the rules and dishing out the punishments when the rules are not obeyed. For a human it's culture. For a dog, it's a primal, animal instinct which tells them there MUST BE an order! In the vast majority of cases where a deaf dog has behavioral problems, it is due to the lack of leadership on the humans' part and / or the humans' emotions that are being directed at the dog. A human may be able to hide their true feelings from another human, but we humans can never hide our emotions from a dog.
Never feel sorry for a deaf dog, because he does not feel sorry for himself! Deaf or not deaf, be your dog's strong, confident, firm pack leader. Provide plenty of daily exercise along with lots of consistent boundaries and discipline. Teach the dog to heel on a lead and to enter and exit all door and gateways after the humans. After you have provided those things for your dog, give him love and you will have a well-balanced dog, deaf or not.
After a long day at work, most people appreciate a good massage. That deep, steady pressure on our tired and aching muscles has many wonderful properties, from deep relaxation to the release of "unknotting" through to recovery from injury. But more than that, a great massage leaves you feeling on top of the world, in a relaxed and carefree way.
So what about dogs? Do they feel the same relaxing effects of massage and, indeed, can they reap the same benefit to their general well-being as people? The answer is "Yes" since massage is a great way of connecting with your dog and can alleviate a number of problems including anxiety and arthritis.
If you have had the pleasure of a therapeutic massage administered by a professional, you know that it can be a life changing experience. Pain can vanish, the body seems realigned and your mood is definitely relaxed. So the question is, what are some of the differences between the human and the canine massage?
Differences between Human and Canine Massage With a canine, the professional massage practitioner must stay absolutely present, or else the dog will get up and walk away. A dog will not tolerate deep pressure that induces "exquisite pain," as we term it in the human world.
Dogs live in the moment and do not have the capacity to project into the future that relief may come after enduring discomfort. If it hurts now, it may hurt forever unless the dog does something to make it stop. So, moving away, yipping, snapping and biting are natural responses. Many of these responses are mitigated because the dog owner is present throughout the massage session.
Dogs use a wider, and different, range of senses than the five that we do. They are hardwired to notice sounds, movement and subtle nuances of smells. They are keenly aware of everything that is going on in the room and on the other side of the walls in the next room.
Massage increases and balances the circulation of all the fluids in the body. This includes blood, lymph, cerebral spinal fluid, interstitial fluids, cellular fluid, saliva, urine, synovial fluid, the fluid in the eyeballs and even the oily wetness on your dog's nose - that is a lot of fluids.
Why? Dogs do not perspire through their skin - largest organ of the body. They have a different system of temperature control than we humans. The closest they come to perspiration is absorbing off heat through the evaporation of their saliva and release of moisture from between the pads of their paws. Massage may be an essential part of your dog's health regimen.
As with humans, there are some cautions and contraindications to keep in mind with animal massage. If an animal is in shock, they may experience low blood pressure, and massage might lower it further thus putting the animal at further risk. Also, fever may be a sign of infection and should be addressed by a vet before massage is administered.
If an animal has cancer, a vet should clear them for massage. Open wounds, ringworm and other skin conditions are also contraindicated for massage therapy. Torn muscles, tendons and ligaments or acute diseases such as influenza or coughs also contraindicate massage.
Utilizing Self-Awarenes So, an essential part of the role of a pet massage practitioner is self-awareness of body mechanics and body language. Any inadvertent movement, such as holding one's breath or squaring one's shoulders, to the dog can quickly shift the dynamics of a session.
The addition of aromas, or rather the lack of the introduction of aromas, is a big component of a session. Dogs monitor the practitioner's mood, thoughts, presence and level of support by tracking minute fragrance shifts in practitioner perspiration. We do not encourage the use of fragrant oils. Anything that masks this information complicates and diminishes, rather than enhances, a dog's pet massage experience. Pet massage accesses and supports the fluid energy within the tissues. In the process, it initiates subtle changes to the body.
It supports the animals' intuitive self-healing abilities. Pet massage combines the use of knowledgeable, compassionate touch, fascia releases, presence and understanding to effect inner body-language communication and resolution.
Humans experience the benefits of massage from registered massage therapists for soft tissue strains, anxiety, digestive disorders, myofascial pain and sports injuries, just to name a few, and now dogs can experience similar benefits from certified canine massage practitioners.
Whether you have a show dog, an elderly dog, an athlete or simply a beloved canine companion, massage can offer relief or relaxation for man's and woman's! best friend. And as more people understand the benefits that massage can provide for their dogs, the more dogs will experience longer, happier, healthier lives!
DOG vs HUMAN TOOTHPASTE This article proudly presented by WWW.CUTENESS.COM and By Catherine Lovering
Dogs have a tendency to swallow almost anything that goes into their mouths. This includes toothpaste, which may not be very appetizing to the average human, but to a pooch, may be a tasty treat. Human toothpaste can be unhealthy for dogs. Caring for your dog's teeth is important to keep him healthy, but be sure to use toothpaste designed for pets.
Stomach Irritation and Toxicity Human toothpaste typically contain fluoride, which can cause stomach irritation when swallowed. In large amounts, fluoride can be toxic to your dog, and for puppies under 6 months of age, fluoride can prevent tooth enamel from properly forming. As much as your pup may seem able to handle eating almost anything, human toothpaste contains ingredients his body just wasn't designed to process. On the other hand, canine toothpaste comes in appealing flavors like chicken and beef, which Fido will enjoy much more than mint or cinnamon.
Not All Pet Toothpastes Are Equal Choosing a toothpaste designed for pets is ideal. However, it's important to be discerning when choosing a brand. Ask your vet for advice. Some dog toothpastes may contain xylitol, which when ingested in amounts larger than the label directions, can cause your dog's blood sugar to drop and potentially cause liver failure, according to the ASCPA.
Make Your Own Dog Toothpaste The ASPCA recommends using a paste made out of baking soda and water to brush your dog's teeth, as an alternative to toothpaste made for dogs. Baking soda can be as effective as a commercial dog toothpaste and will not cause your pup any adverse health effects.
Tips For Brushing Your Dog's Teeth A vet can tell you if your dog has any serious dental problems that need medical attention. Once you've gotten the go-ahead to do regular cleanings on your own, ease your pup into it. Touch his lips and gums on a regular basis for a few weeks. Then introduce the paste by putting it on his lips and letting him lick it. Finally, use a toothbrush made for pets or a clean piece of gauze on your finger to gently clean the teeth using a circular motion.
Shampoos formulated for dogs and those formulated for people are not interchangeable.
Shampoos are designed to clean specific types of hair and scalps. Dogs have different hair types and skin from us. Our shampoo is not formulated for our four-legged friends. With some very rare exceptions, you should avoid using shampoo made for people on your pooch, because it's too harsh on his skin and can cause a whole slew of skin issues.
Ingredients Matter Dog shampoos have ingredients formulated especially for their skin and coats. For example, flea and tick shampoos contain insecticides to help eliminate or control these pests. Dog shampoos also contain salicylic acid, menthol, colloidal oatmeal, aloe or hydrocortisone. These ingredients relieve itching and other skin allergy symptoms. Dog shampoos also often contain lactic acid and glycerin, which help them with dry and sensitive skin, as well as almond or coconut oil to help keep coats shiny. Even the best shampoo formulated for people lacks these ingredients, which are vital to keeping your dog's skin and coat healthy. Prolonged use of "people" shampoo ultimately will harm your dog, even if the shampoo doesn't already contain chemicals that will harm your dog.
pH Balanced for a Human A dog's skin has a pH balance of 7.5, versus our skin, which has a pH balance of 5.5. It may not seem like much of a difference, but our shampoo simply is not designed to deal with a dog's more alkaline skin. Even a high quality shampoo formulated for people will not have a pH balance of between 6.5 and 7.5, which is what your pooch needs, and therefore will irritate his skin. Cheaper "people" shampoos also are very acidic and prolonged use of such shampoos on your furball will strip his coat of essential oils, which will dry out his skin and dull his coat.
A Matter of Thick Skin The reason shampoo formulated for people is so harsh on your dog literally is a matter of thick skin. People have skin that is three times thicker than a dog's skin, which means that, compared to people, dogs have extremely sensitive skin. Even if you use a shampoo designed for people with sensitive skin, the difference in thickness is so great that it still will be harsh on your dog's skin.
Different Types of Dog Shampoos "People" shampoos are designed for people with color-treated hair, dry hair, normal hair and oily hair, and some contain tea tree oil and menthol to treat dry scalp and dandruff. People have different types of shampoos to deal with different types of hair and scalp issues. In the same manner, therefore, not all dog shampoos are created equal. Those with insecticides treat flea and tick infestations. Medicated shampoos are formulated for pooches who suffer from skin allergies. Oatmeal shampoos treat dogs with dry and sensitive skin. While using a "people" shampoo on your dog once or twice if you run out of doggie shampoo is not likely to cause harm, it is important to stick with shampoos made especially for your pooch.
An incident of burning dogs in the city of Nanjing drew nearly 17000 comments from web users on Thursday and triggered a huge debate about dog rights. The behavior under fire took place on Wednesday, when a couple of people poured gasoline on two puppies and their mother and set their cave on fire. The dogs were homeless and had stayed for a few months in a corner of a garden in these people's housing compound. One of them said the dogs' bark disturbed people's sleep, local newspaper reported.
A witness tried to stop the fire, but one puppy was killed. Residents later called police. Messages on online forums said the surviving dogs were taken care of. Condemnation of the burning dominated online comments on this incident. People called the act cruel, utterly inhuman or barbarous. Some say those who set the fire could have gone to jail if they were in some other countries. "You could not like dogs, you could even hate them, but you have no right to take their lives because of your discomfort," one comment read.
Not long after the debate broke out, a post appeared on tianya club forum written in the name of an old lady, who claimed that the dogs' barking had forced her to increase the dose of her sleeping drugs but still kept her awake at night. The poster admitted that it was her neighbors who tried to burn the dogs to help her and that she was sorry about their behavior. "It is a good thing that people have more awareness of animal protection and animals now have higher status," the poster wrote. "However, please consider here: animals have their rights, but shouldn't people also have their rights as human? When human rights were hurt by animals, whose rights deserve protection more?"
There are also a handful of comments that do not take the burning as such a big deal and insist that China needs to focus on problems of people instead of dogs and cats. "Those who think about dog rights, have you thought about human rights?" One commentator asked, and listed a series of threats homeless animals could bring to human, including carrying disease, barking at children and dropping excrement everywhere. A harsh debate for animal rights like this was unimaginable in China just a couple of decades ago, when most Chinese people were largely concerned of their own livelihood. Material shortage and relatively poor living conditions left people with little heart to care about how animals around them were doing.
Recent years have seen more and more Chinese people, mostly affluent urban residents, keep pets like dogs and cats. Animal hospital and shelter have been set up in many places, although such resources are still far from abundant. Schools also carried out the so-called "love education," instructing children to love small animals and respect lives.
Dog Senses versus Human Senses: How do they compare? We all know Rin Tin Tin was able to sniff out bombs and Lassie was able to find Timmy in the well.
Have you ever wondered how our dog's senses compare to our own? Like us, dogs have visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and touch senses. However, the physiologies of these sensory organs differ between the two species. Here's the shake down:
The Nose: A dog interprets the world predominantly by smell, whereas human predominantly by sight. Even though a dog's brain is one tenth the size of a human's brain, the part that controls smell is 40 times larger than in humans. A human has about 5 million scent glands whereas dogs have 125 million to 300 million (depending on breed), meaning their sense of smell is 1,000 to 10,000,000 times better than humans!
Have you ever wondered why their noses are wet? It's because the mucus on a dog's nose actually helps it capture scent particles. Dog noses are so sensitive that service dogs are even being trained (by using smell) to help detect blood sugar levels in diabetic persons.
The Eyes: A common question people ask is if dogs are colorblind. The answer is, not really. Studies have shown that dogs do not only see in shades of black and white, but see in colors of various shades of blues and yellows as well. Dogs can see better at dawn and dusk than humans, however humans can see objects at a distance much better than dogs. Humans can also see things better close up than dogs. Dogs do have the advantage on recognizing moving objects, giving them better ability to spot and hunt prey.
The Ears: Puppies are born deaf and cannot hear until they are 21 days old. By the time their sense of hearing has developed, they can already hear 4 times the distance of a human with normal hearing. Dogs can hear higher pitched sounds and can detect a frequency range of 67-45,000 Hz, compared to a human range of 64-23,000 Hz. Dogs have 18 muscles in their ears allowing them to move them in the direction of the sound. Perked ear dogs, such as German Shepherds, usually have better hearing than floppy ear dogs.
The Sleep Dogs do dream! Dogs and humans have the same type of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) and during this REM stage dogs can dream. The twitching and paw movements that occur during their sleep are signs that your pet is dreaming
The Heart A dog's heartbeat is fast compared to a person's. Theirs is between 70 and 120 beat per minute, ours are just between 70 and 80.
All breeds have 321 bones, humans adults have 206.
Bones All breeds have 321 bones, humans adults have 206.
Researchers have pinpointed the genetic mutation is dogs that cause them to becopme albino. The mutation, caused by a missing protein, causes albinism in Doberman pinschers. Affected animals have a white or lighter-colored coat, pink noses and lips, along with pale irises in the eyes - similar to humans affected.
Researchers studied 20 dogs of each color and discovered that more than half of the albino dogs had at least one tumor while only one of the regular-colored dogs possessed a tumor.
The canine breed and people also experience the same skin sensitivity to sunlight, which results in an increased risk of skin tumors. These traits are very similar to the characteristics humans display with this particular condition causing light-pigmented skin and hair, along with eye discoloration and vision disturbances. Albino Dobermans typically developed these types of tumors, much like humans, but we wondered what the actual increase in prevalence was between a "white" dog and a regular-colored Doberman The eyes have it: The differences between a normal and Albino Doberman:
Dog and cat eyes are able to process a great deal more available light than human eyes. This is not only why they have far superior night vision, but also why their eyes appear red in flash photography. What we perceive as pink or red in any standard dog's eyes is simply excess light reflected back out through the blood vessels in their eyes.
DOG vs HUMAN EAR This article is proudly presented by
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A dog's ear canal is, by far, a bit deeper than humans one and surely more curvy and twisted than our own. This makes it a perfect hiding place for parasites, yeast, and mites, making the cleaning of them imperative. Trapped debris can also result in infections and the development of masses in the ear, the removal of which can be rather smelly and unsightly. Dogs have twice as many muscles for moving their ears as humans do. 18 different ones are involved when a dog moves their ear(s).
The canine's ear canal is long indeed, consisting of three parts, the pinna or outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear, creating many blind spots that can be neglected if not careful. The existence of these blind spots within a dog's ear will make it important for owners to really ensure that they are well and thoroughly cleaned.
Unlike a human ear canal, a dog's is rather L-shaped, which means waxy build-up can more easily occur in the little elbow of that "L" shape.
The ear canal in the dog travels vertically downward and then travels horizontally toward the brain. The human ear canal travels horizontally toward the brain.
Compare the schemes of Human's vs Dog's structures:
HUMAN EAR STRUCTURE
DOG EAR STRUCTURE
Human hearing: Our ears are placed laterally and cannot move independently. Our cerebral cortex decodes the sound waves captured by our outer ear and carried along the middle and inner ear to the auditory nerve, and transforms them into identifiable sounds.
We can localize a specific sound somewhere in the environment, but will no longer be able to do so if we loose our sense of hearing in one of our ears. Our brain is less devoted to sound than it is to vision, which places us at a disadvantage when we compare our hearing abilities to a dog's hearing abilities. We detect more or less the same amount of low pitched sounds as dogs, but not nearly as many high pitched sounds, which renders our hearing less acute. The human hearing range is from 20cps (or 20Hz) up to 20,000cps (or 20kHz) and we cannot hear over as great a distance as dogs can.
Dog's hearing: The ear's most important function is hearing, but it is also an important organ of balance. Dog Versus Human Hearing RangeSome dogs have erect ear flaps and others have long, floppy ones. Hearing ability is superior in dogs with erect ears, which act as amplifiers for incoming sounds, and in those who can swivel their ears in the direction of the sound.
Dogs can hear sounds over a wider range of frequencies and a greater distance than man.
They may find high pitched noises, such as the ones emitted by vacuum cleaners and other household appliances, uncomfortable or even painful. Worth bearing that in mind with respect to dog care.
According to Dr. Bruce Fogle, the range of hearing for dogs is 40,000cps or 40kHz. They are better than us at detecting higher notes, and have the ability to move their ears independently, so that one ear can locate the sound and both ears can then catch the maximum number of sound waves. This is how dogs are endowed with the ability to hear over a greater distance than us.
Many people have also wondered why dogs can hear a whistle that apears silent to humans. This is simply because dogs can hear at frequencies higher than the human hearing range, which stops, as previously stated, at around 20kHz. If the pitch of a dog whistle is set above that frequency then a dog will be able to hear it where a human will not. There are some sources that state a dog's hearing range goes from 40cps (40Hz) to 60,000cps (60 kHz), so plenty of scope to find a frequency outside of the human hearing range.
Man's relationship with his best friend has lasted 32,000 years, with cave dwelling hunter gatherers using dogs to carry supplies so that they could save their energy for hunting. The bond between man and dog arose at around the time Neanderthals began to surrender their dominance over Europe, which had lasted for the previous 250,000 years. Now experts have suggested the domestication of dogs, and the benefit it gave to their masters, could have played a key rule in the demise of the Neanderthals and supremacy of humans.
Excavations of early human dwellings suggest the animals were revered by our ancestors, with their teeth adorning jewellery and their images occasionally painted on walls, the Daily Mail reported. Dogs, which at the time would have been at least the size of German Shepherds, could have helped humans by transporting meat and other supplies from one place to another, removing an energy burden from their masters which would have given them an advantage when hunting.
The relationship would have been mutually beneficial because in return for becoming a tool for humans, the animals would have received food, warmth from fires and companionship. Pat Shipman, an anthropologist at Penn State university, said: "Animals were not incidental to our evolution into Homo sapiens - They were essential to it.
A dog's visual world is similar to ours in many ways, but there are some notable differences. Dogs experience different vision quality in low light and day light, their field of vision is wider but with narrower overlap, and their perception of nearby objects and color is less distinct than a human's.
Humans have 1.2 million nerve fibers in their optic nerve system, while dogs have 160,000, this allows humans to perceive more detail than a dog can, as long as there is enough light. In human terms, dogs can see 20:80 to our 20:20 during the daylight; however, they do have an advantage over humans in low light. A structure within the eye called the tapetum lucidum adds greater perception, and the green/yellow reflection, in low light.
In addition to different vision quality in high or low light, dogs also have a different field of vision from humans, allowing them to see more of their surroundings without moving their heads. The average dog's field of vision is 240 degrees vs. human's 180 degrees.
Although they can see a wider view, dogs can't focus much closer than 30-50 cm from their noses, relying on other senses, especially smell, when examining objects close up.
Despite the various differences between the visual ability of man and dog, they still do share certain common traits. One of these is our visual ability concerning things in motion. Dog, like humans, do not see a stationary object as well as one that is moving at a moderate speed. For instance, a camouflaged bug hiding in the bushes will not be detected as easily by our eyes as will that same bug when it starts moving. Going by that same logic, it is also far easier to play tennis with a green ball on a green grass court than it is to find a stationary ball in that same location.
There are several types of color-sensitive receptor cells in the eye, referred to as cones, which allow the subject to view different areas of the spectrum. Dogs only have 2 types of cones, while humans enjoy 3 types. This means dogs cannot distinguish red from orange or orange from yellow, and they see turquoise as grey. Color vision studies indicate that dogs see more color than other 2-coned mammals.
Generally speaking, dogs and humans perceive a very similar visual world. Remembering these little differences can help us better understand what our pets can and cannot see.
Many people think that their pet dog lives in an old black and white movie, unable to distinguish colors, and it seems that it is a ho-hum world indeed. Poor Fido can't even enjoy that handsome winter sweater we so carefully picked out for his days at the dog park. And what about that fancy blue ball he loves to fetch? Is it merely a dim grey orb lolling in bleak grey grass? Well, not quite.
DH Garcinia You Are Worth It Until rather recently, the 1990's in fact, it was thought that dogs could not see color at all. After advanced research, science has come to find that your dog's retinas actually do contain the color-sensitive components called cones.
Dogs have fewer cones than we do in our retinas so they don't see quite as many colors as a human, and the colors they see are not as robust and vibrant, but they do see color.
The following graph (courtesy of Dr. Mark Plonsky PHD, University of Wisconson, Stevens Point) is a wonderful and easy to read example of how your dog's vision compares to our human vision.
In looking at the chart we can see that certain colors are indistinguishable to them. Red looks brownish-grey or brownish-black, and orange, green and yellow all look yellow.
Your dog is able to see the color blue. Purple seems blue to them. Greenish blue and green seem grey.
There are also differences in how dogs see visual angles in contrast to human beings, especially the horizontal angle. People can see at an angle of approximately 180 degrees, while dogs do it at an angle of 250 Gradus.
Studies performed by Russian scientists demonstrated that dogs tend to discriminate real color rather than brightness cues. Dogs have dichromatic color vision, which means that they have two types of cones in their eyes. They match any color they register with no more than two pure spectral lights. Placental mammals are in general dichromatic. The ability to see long wavelengths necessary to distinguish red from green seems to have disappeared during evolution, probably after the Triassic period. Dichromatic vision is, though, good to distinguish colors in dim light, favoring the most nocturnal animals.
Generally dogs have an olfactory sense approximately 100,000 to 1,000,000 times more acute than a human's.
A Bloodhound, The dog with the highest sense of smell, has a 10,000,000 to 100,000,000 higher ability than a human.
As you have undoubtedly noticed, you and your dog have very different notions of what smells nice. To your dog, something could smell quite wonderful. But to you, in a word, it's yucky. And vice versa.
Human's smell Different smells are captured by the olfactory nerve, which receptors are found within the lining of our nasal cavities. This nerve ends in the area immediately below the brain's frontal lobes, which makes it very short. Smell may influence our behaviour, for example, a newborn baby moves his mouth towards the source of the odour of his mother's milk, ignoring other odours. At this age our brain functions don't differ much from the brain functions of other animals, so we may assume that smell is as important to a newborn baby as it is to a two week old puppy. However, as the infant grows his sense of smell becomes less important whereas other senses, especially sight, become more important. With dogs, things evolve quite differently.
Dog's smell Scent is, by far, more developed in dogs than in humans. A dog's nostrils can be used independently from each other. Dogs have much larger olfactory bulbs and possess around 220 million scent receptors in their nose as opposed to man, who only has 5 million. Dogs have a much larger area of nasal membrane than us. Through scent, they gather a tremendous amount of information from the environment, other dogs, people, places, other animals and can learn to detect drugs such as cocaine and cannabis, detect explosives and cancerous cells. They can even detect a seizure in a human before it occurs, and detect a variety of substances at concentrations one thousand to one million times lower than we can.
The taste system of dogs is used as a model for people because the two are so similar.
Dogs have less taste buds than humans: 1700 taste buds compared to humans that have 9000, but dogs have considerably more taste buds than cats, which average only about 470.
Young puppies sense of taste is not fully developed: puppies are born with their sense of touch, taste and smell but the taste buds do not fully mature until after a few weeks of life.
The majority of canine taste buds respond to sugar, most likely a reflection of their omnivorous evolution.
Dogs can taste water, while humans can't: "Dogs also have taste buds that are tuned for water, which is something they share with cats and other carnivores, but is not found in humans."
Like people, dogs are able to detect a kind of "fruity-sweet" flavor that attracts us and them to the calorie-rich ripeness of fruits and vegetables.
The second greatest number of canine taste buds respond to acidic tastes, which correspond to sour and bitter in people.
Dogs don't appear to have a specific taste response to salt.
Odors coupled with taste tend to impact what the dog will eat.
Dogs don't care about the color or presentation of food. (so why do some dog food companies add artificial colorings?)
Dogs are sensitive to spicy foods and all else equal, prefer less spicy to more spicy. Although omnivores, most dogs much prefer meat to other foods.
If your dog is like most, he is not the pickiest animal in the world when it comes to eating food. This is generally because a dog's sense of taste is not as strong as that of a human being.
The Taste Buds Dogs possess about 1,700 papillae (sensory cells) on their tongue, as opposed to a human who has around 9,000. Although dogs' sense of taste is not close to that of a human, it is believed that dogs can differentiate between salty, sour, sweet and bitter tastes.
DOG vs HUMAN SLEEP & DREAMS This material proudly presented by WWW.UMUSEKE.RW and Stanley Coren
Researchers have previously confirmed that canines do in fact dream. Now, they say that in fact, the dream in a similar way to humans and may even dream about their day as we do. Why should we not have a great deal in common? After all we're 95 percent identical genetically and physically? Our brains are similar, our neurochemistry the same, and our reflexes and memory are "wired" in like manner.
Experts say the "basic maker that indicates dreaming" in humans is the motion of rapid eye movement (REM), which is when an individual's eyes begin moving around inside their closed eye lids. And researchers confirm that dogs experience the same thing, But dogs probably escape one common human sleep problem: sleep paralysis. In this condition, consciousness returns before the brain "switches on" the muscles again, so people awaken but can't move. Sleep paralysis is often the result of sleep deprivation, which is a rare condition for dogs. In dogs, you can monitor when they're having a dream quite easily, for a typical medium sized dog, their breathing is fairly regular and somewhere around 20 minutes into the sleep cycle, you can see the eyes moving around the closed lids and their breathing will become irregular. And sometimes you see twitching, like the dog is trying to do something, which indicates the dog is in the dream state and it will dream for about two to three minutes.
Studies have shown that how much and how long a dog dreams depends on its size. It turns out that small dogs dream more frequently and have shorter dreams and larger dogs dream less but have longer dreams. Also, the age of a dog determines on how much time they spend in REM.
Puppies spend a much greater proportion of their sleep time than adult dogs in REM sleep, no doubt condensing huge quantities of newly acquired data. Adult dogs spend about 10 to 12 % of their sleeping time in REM sleep. In human brains, there is a mechanism that keeps our muscles from moving while we sleep. However, when the switch is weak REM sleep behavior disorder can develop and individuals will act out their dreams while they are still asleep. Dogs spend between 8 and 12 percent of their sleep time in the so called REM "mode". While comparably, humans spend between 20 and 25 percent of their sleep time in REM.
Now the difference between humans' and canines' sleep is that our pets’ sleep journeys are in much shorter bursts than humans, so they are less likely to get into the REM sleep stage. Since dogs don't get as much deep sleep, they end up needing more rest in general, thus they are napping whenever there's an opportunity.The same thing goes with dogs, if their switch doesn't work that well you will see the dog running or snapping at something and it is possible to control these off switches in a lab because researchers have pinpointed it in the old part of the brain - the medulla oblongata. By inactivating these switches in the lab, scientists have been able to observe canines act out their dreams and decipher what they believe the dogs are dreaming of.
For human beings their dreams have to do with very common activities, things that happened during the day and it seems that for dogs basically the same thing. Dogs dream about doing doggie things. A Pointer will point at a dream bird and a Doberman Pinscher will chase a dream robber. People often wonder whether dogs that seem to be running during sleep are dreaming of catching rabbits or suchlike... from the above discussion we can safely say they are. Although no one really knows the true function of dreaming it does seem to be necessary for normal data processing and memory storage. In support of this is the fact that the same brain structures involved in memory are intimately involved in dreaming. There have been other dream studies performed on other mammals to understand if it is all mammals or just dogs that dream. We have reason to suspect that most mammals dream - cats & dogs dream, horses dream, but the nature of their dreams and cycles depend on the species.
Although dogs may dream similar to humans, the amount of sleep is very different. The average human sleeps about seven to eight hours per day, where an adult dog sleeps anywhere from 12 to 14 hours per day, about 50 percent of a dog's day is sleep. The most important thing about the fact dogs dream is that it demonstrates that not only is the dog's brains somewhat structurally similar to the way a human brain works, it probably functions the same way.
DOG vs OWNER: DOGS MATCHING HUMAN PAJAMAS This article is proudly presented by WWW.BUSTLE.COM and Alyse Whitney
Now that you have made your list and checked it twice, it's time to decide if your dog has been naughty or nice. No matter how well-behaved your pup is, they deserve the very best during the holiday season, and by that, we mean dressing them up in festive outfits and feeding them treats to thank them for putting up with your shenanigans. Here are sets of matching dog and owner pajamas to shop right now.
Jumping over stuff? check. Doing backflips? check. All this in slo-mo? check. Jumpy-the-dog is a parkour machine! Jumpy's specialties are extreme high jumps, dancing, acting, dock diving, fly ball, frisbee, skateboarding and other amazing tricks. He has appeared in many commercials including ads during the Superbowl, and for companies such as Suzuki, American Greetings and many more.
The canine IQ test results are in: Even the average dog has the mental abilities of a 2-year-old child.
The finding is based on a language development test, revealing average dogs can learn 165 words, similar to a 2-year-old child, including signals and gestures, and dogs in the top 20 percent in intelligence can learn 250 words.
Although you wouldn't want one to balance your checkbook, dogs can count. They can also understand more than 150 words and intentionally deceive other dogs and people to get treats, according to psychologist and leading canine researcher Stanley Coren, PhD, of the University of British Columbia. He spoke Saturday on the topic "How Dogs Think" at the American Psychological Association's 117th Annual Convention.
Coren, author of more than a half-dozen popular books on dogs and dog behavior, has reviewed numerous studies to conclude that dogs have the ability to solve complex problems and are more like humans and other higher primates than previously thought.
"We all want insight into how our furry companions think, and we want to understand the silly, quirky and apparently irrational behaviors [that] Lassie or Rover demonstrate," Coren said in an interview. "Their stunning flashes of brilliance and creativity are reminders that they may not be Einsteins but are sure closer to humans than we thought."
According to several behavioral measures, Coren says dogs' mental abilities are close to a human child age 2 to 2.5 years.
The intelligence of various types of dogs does differ and the dog's breed determines some of these differences, Coren says. "There are three types of dog intelligence: instinctive (what the dog is bred to do), adaptive (how well the dog learns from its environment to solve problems) and working and obedience (the equivalent of 'school learning')."
Data from 208 dog obedience judges from the United States and Canada showed the differences in working and obedience intelligence of dog breeds, according to Coren. "Border collies are number one; poodles are second, followed by German shepherds. Fourth on the list is golden retrievers; fifth, dobermans; sixth, Shetland sheepdogs; and finally, Labrador retrievers," said Coren.
As for language, the average dog can learn 165 words, including signals, and the "super dogs" (those in the top 20 percent of dog intelligence) can learn 250 words, Coren says. "The upper limit of dogs' ability to learn language is partly based on a study of a border collie named Rico who showed knowledge of 200 spoken words and demonstrated 'fast-track learning,' which scientists believed to be found only in humans and language learning apes," Coren said.
Dogs can also count up to four or five, said Coren. And they have a basic understanding of arithmetic and will notice errors in simple computations, such as 1+1=1 or 1+1=3.
Four studies he examined looked how dogs solve spatial problems by modeling human or other dogs' behavior using a barrier type problem. Through observation, Coren said, dogs can learn the location of valued items (treats), better routes in the environment - the fastest way to a favorite chair, how to operate mechanisms (such as latches and simple machines) and the meaning of words and symbolic concepts - sometimes by simply listening to people speak and watching their actions.
During play, dogs are capable of deliberately trying to deceive other dogs and people in order to get rewards, said Coren. "And they are nearly as successful in deceiving humans as humans are in deceiving dogs."
To find out which dogs had the top school smarts, Coren collected data from more than 200 dog obedience judges from the United States and Canada.
He found the top dogs, in order of their doggy IQ are: Border collies Poodles German shepherds Golden retrievers Dobermans Shetland sheepdogs Labrador retrievers
HOW DOGS SEE COLOR vs HOW HUMAN SEE COLOR This article proudly presented by WWW.DOGICA.COM and WWW.DOG-VISION.COM
Brightness discrimination Brightness discrimination is the ability to differentiate between different shades. It is measured by determining the smallest discernible difference in brightness (ФR) between two stimuli compared to the absolute brightness of the brighter stimulus. The Weber fraction calculated for humans is 0.11 whereas the Weber fraction for dogs is 0.22. Thus the brightness discrimination of dogs is about 2 times worse than that of humans. This means for example that certain shades of gray that humans perceive as different are perceived as the same shade by dogs. The image below illustrates this effect by showing a set of rectangles with differing brightness, and the same set with halved relative brightness.
Visual acuity Visual acuity is a measure of the spatial resolution of the visual system. It is often measured in cycles per degree (CPD), which measures how much an eye can differentiate one object from another in terms of visual angles. The maximum visual acuity of the human eye is around 50 CPD and 60 CPD. The measurements of dogs' visual acuity vary around 7.5-9 CPD and 11.6 CPD. According to these measurements dogs' visual acuity is 4 to 8 times worse than that of humans. Choosing the amount by which the visual acuity should be decreased depends on many factors: the angle of view of the image, the resolution of the image, dpi ratio of the screen on which the image is viewed and the distance from which the screen is viewed. Under average conditions if the picture's resolution is equal to the resolution of the screen that it is viewed on then by reducing the visual acuity by a factor of 5 is a good approximation. The image below shows a black and white grating with a bar width of 1 to 7 pixels. The effect of visual acuity reduced by a factor of 2 to 8 can be observed on the horizontal bands stacked above each other.
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 2
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 3
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 4
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 5
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 6
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 7
Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 8
Color Perception Dogs are not completely color blind since they have a dichromatic color perception. Unlike humans who have three different color sensitive cone cells in their retina (red, green and blue) dogs have only two (yellow and blue). This does not mean that dogs can't see green or red objects! It only means that they can't distinguish green, yellow or red objects based on their color. However they can still distinguish a red ball from a green one if there is a difference in the perceived brightness of the two. The color vision of dogs is similar to a person suffering from deuteranopia (red-green color blindness). Red, yellow and green are perceived as one hue. Blue and purple are perceived as a second hue. Cyan and magenta are perceived as a neutral hue (grey). The image below shows a full RGB spectrum and how the same colorline would be perceived by a dog.
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