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DOG VISION
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DOG VISION and EYES















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How to Stop Dog Eye Teardrop
Dog Eye Structure
How dogs see the world
Dog and Puppy Vision
Dog Vision Tests & Simulator
Can Dog See at Night?
Can Dog See Colors?
Dog Eye Health
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DOG VISION SIMULATOR
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DOG VISION and EYES
DOG EYE STRUCTURE
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This is also favored by the reflective membrane of the eye, the tapetum lucidum, which maximizes light when there's minimal light intensity. Moreover, the richness of rods in their eyes explain how dogs see in the dark, been able to walk through the house without tripping.

DOG VISION and EYES

Another component of a retina is called a rod. Dogs have more rod cells than we do. Rod cells help see in dim light and also to distinguish the color gray.

DOG EYE STRUCTUREDOG EYE STRUCTURE

Garcinia Cambogia Cute Little Fruit - It is believed that dogs can not only comprehend grey well, but that they can see many shades of grey that we cannot. Dogs, like cats, also see much better than we do in dim light situations.

DOG EYE STRUCTURE

Dogs are nearsighted creatures and do not see clearly at distances of more than 20 feet. They are able to detect movement at great distances, but cannot see the detail that would allow them to distinguish you from a small tree.

DOG VISION and EYESDOG EYE STRUCTURE

Dogs can see movement and light much better than people. In the retina of the eye, dogs have more of a specific type of cell called a rod, which is good at collecting dim light, so they have better night vision. A reflective layer in the dog's eye, called the tapetum lucidum, magnifies incoming light. This reflective layer lends a characteristic blue or greenish glint to dogs' eyes when light, for example, headlights of passing cars, shines into them at night. However, dogs do not have as much visual acuity as people, meaning that they cannot distinguish fine details as well. They also cannot differentiate colors as well because they have fewer of the cells in the retina called cones, which are responsible for color vision. Contrary to popular belief, however, dogs are not completely colorblind.

DOG VISION and EYES

A unique feature of the dog eye is the nictitating membrane, which is also called the third eyelid. This additional eyelid is a whitish pink color, and it is found under the other eyelids in the inside corner (near the nose) of the eye. The third eyelid extends up when needed to protect the eyeball from scratches - for example, while traveling through brush or in response to inflammation.










DOG VISION and EYES
HOW DOGS SEE COLOR
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DOG VISION and EYES - TEST & EXAMES, DETECTION OF VISION LOSS

Brightness discrimination
Brightness discrimination is the ability to differentiate between different shades. It is measured by determining the smallest discernible difference in brightness (ФR) between two stimuli compared to the absolute brightness (R) of the brighter stimulus (AR/R = Weber fraction). The Weber fraction calculated for humans is 0.11 whereas the Weber fraction for dogs is 0.22. Thus the brightness discrimination of dogs is about 2 times worse than that of humans. This means for example that certain shades of gray that humans perceive as different are perceived as the same shade by dogs. The image below illustrates this effect by showing a set of rectangles with differing brightness, and the same set with halved relative brightness.

Human's Vision

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Dog's Vision

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES


Visual acuity
Visual acuity is a measure of the spatial resolution of the visual system. It is often measured in cycles per degree (CPD), which measures how much an eye can differentiate one object from another in terms of visual angles. The maximum visual acuity of the human eye is around 50 CPD and 60 CPD. The measurements of dogs' visual acuity vary around 7.5-9 CPD and 11.6 CPD. According to these measurements dogs' visual acuity is 4 to 8 times worse than that of humans. Choosing the amount by which the visual acuity should be decreased depends on many factors: the angle of view of the image, the resolution of the image, dpi ratio of the screen on which the image is viewed and the distance from which the screen is viewed. Under average conditions if the picture's resolution is equal to the resolution of the screen that it is viewed on then by reducing the visual acuity by a factor of 5 is a good approximation. The image below shows a black and white grating with a bar width of 1 to 7 pixels. The effect of visual acuity reduced by a factor of 2 to 8 can be observed on the horizontal bands stacked above each other.

Original
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 2
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 3
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 4
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 5
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 6
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 7
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Visual acuity reduced by a factor of 8
How Dog See Colors, DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES


Color Perception
Dogs are not completely color blind since they have a dichromatic color perception. Unlike humans who have three different color sensitive cone cells in their retina (red, green and blue) dogs have only two (yellow and blue). This does not mean that dogs can't see green or red objects! It only means that they can't distinguish green, yellow or red objects based on their color. However they can still distinguish a red ball from a green one if there is a difference in the perceived brightness of the two. The color vision of dogs is similar to a person suffering from deuteranopia (red-green color blindness). Red, yellow and green are perceived as one hue. Blue and purple are perceived as a second hue. Cyan and magenta are perceived as a neutral hue (grey). The image below shows a full RGB spectrum and how the same colorline would be perceived by a dog.

HUMAN & DOG VISION and EYES

DOG VISION and EYES

DOG VISION and EYESHUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

HUMAN VISION and EYESDOG VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES








DOG VISION and EYES
NIGHT DOG VISION
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The secret to dog night vision?
They make great use of whatever light is available to them, no matter how little there is.

DOG VISION and EYES

Understanding dog night vision
The simple fact is that dog eyes are structurally different than human eyes. In answering the question, "Can dogs see in the dark?" (or "Do dogs have night vision?") understanding those structural differences helps demystify dogs seemingly preternatural vision in low light. Dogs have larger pupils, more rods in wider retinas, and a tissue called the tapetum lucidum behind those retinas. These are the mechanisms by which dogs appear to see in the dark.

DOG VISION and EYES

I say "appear" because dogs cannot see in total darkness any better than we can. The secret to dog night vision is that they make much better use of whatever light is available to them, no matter how little there is. Because of the way dog eyes are constructed, they effectively use any light that's there twice, processing it as it comes into their eyes and reflecting back any excess. It means that dog vision at night, in the dark, or in low light situations may be blurrier or less distinct, but that even the smallest movements can be recognized.


Dogs have larger pupils and wider retinas
Whatever color iris your dog's eyes may have under normal circumstances, look into your dog's eyes when evening is falling and they will appear to be completely black. This is the first step to understanding how dogs can see in the dark. Their pupils dilate wider and wider as the sources of light dim, until their eyes seem to be two giant pupils. These pupils admit all available light, no matter how little there is.

DOG VISION and EYES

The retina is a net of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and helps to form images from light input. Dog eyes have wider retinas than humans, which means they're capable of processing even very small amounts of light. If you recall your high-school biology classes, you'll know that retinas are where we find the cells that process visual input. Namely, rods and cones. Dog eyes have more rods, which make sense of light and motion - than their human counterparts. Wider retinas with more rods means that dog eyes are far more sensitive to light, no matter how dim, and better detect movement, no matter how small.


The tapetum lucidum, or the "tapestry of light"
Just behind the retina in dog eyes, you find something that human eyes do not have at all: a tissue called the tapetum lucidum. A rough but poetic translation from Latin for "tapetum lucidum" is the "tapestry of light." As the retinas draw in whatever light is available to dog eyes, and the rods process them as forms and movement, the tapetum lucidum reflects back whatever is left over for the dog to make use of again. Effectively, dogs can see in the dark because any available light is used twice, once coming in and again reflected back out.

DOG VISION and EYES

How many photos have you seen or taken of your dog where the flash goes off and it looks like the dog,s eyes take on an eerie yellow or green glow? That is an effect of the tapetum lucidum, and is a primary reason why dogs can see in the dark, or at least why their ability to maneuver in low light is five times better than ours. It is also the reason why I could see only my dog,s eyes at night with only a single outside light, even at a distance of over 75 feet. It,s not that dog eyes are better than ours, just more efficient at making use of any available light source.


Sacrificing focus for sight
What dog eyes gain in their ability to utilize light and detect motion by way of wider retinas, more rods, and the tapetum lucidum, they give up in detail and focus. If you are curious not only as to whether dogs can see in the dark but also what it is they see, it,s really a matter of perception. In a letter of August 1799, William Blake, the great poet of vision, wrote that the "tree which moves some to tears of joy is, in the eyes of others, only a green thing which stands in the way."

DOG VISION and EYES

Dog eyes have more rods than humans, but at the cost of fewer cones, the other set of cells in the retina, responsible for color and detail. I saw only two glowing dots in the dark oriented in my direction, and knew it was my dog. What did my dog see? For a close approximation, think about old grainy photos or the vast majority of pictures people post from a night out on Instagram images of shapes that you can just make out, but which tend to be blurry and indistinct. A rough approximation, to be certain, but it gives you some idea of what dogs see in low light.


DOG NIGHT VISION and EYES

Does your dog have night vision?
Those of you who have indoor dogs may express wonder at your dog's ability to navigate the home in the dead of night. There's no mystery here, only familiarity. Provided you aren't practicing weekly feng shui or rearranging furniture to maximize your energy, chances are your dog has had every opportunity to know the general layout of its home terrain. Knowing where things are makes it much easier for your dog to "see in the dark," given that dogs can compensate for lack of light by intimate knowledge of their surroundings.








DOG EYE TEAR DROPS
DOG EYE TEAR DROPS
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Tear Stains
Anyone who has a white pet knows exactly what tear stains are: a rust-colored problem that mars an otherwise cute face! What it actually is, scientifically speaking, is a discoloration of the hair under the eyes caused by excessive tearing mixed with the bacteria and yeast normally found on the skin surface thus producing a reddish-brown streak. This can occur in any breed but is most visible on white hair.

GLAUKOMA IN DOGS, BLINDNESS IN DOGS CAUSES - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

The causes of the excessive tearing of the eye falls under two main categories:


1. Irritation to the eye – this can be from allergies (environmental or food-borne), eye infections, glaucoma, or eyelash/eyelid irritation.

2. Improper draining of the tears – this can result from shallow eye sockets, eyelids turned inward, hair growth around the eye, or blocked drainage holes (puncta).

Tears usually drain into the puncta, found on the inner corner of each eye, and from there drain into a pathway in the nose. When this does not occur, the tears spill out onto the dog's face and create an ideal warm,moist environment for bacteria and yeast to flourish. This is when staining occurs.

DOG EYE TEAR DROPS

So what can we do to end this staining and restore our dog's cuteness?? Well, there are a few options, some more aggressive than others:

1. Treat your pet for allergies. This can include a prescription from your veterinarian, or something simple like a food change to see if the symptoms (tearing) is diminished.

2. Antibiotics. This will reduce the bacteria on your pet's skin so when your pet does tear, there is no bacteria to mix with and stain the hair. This is not usually a long-term solution due to the effects of antibiotics system-wide.

3. Surgery. If the problem stems from an inward-turned eyelid where the eyelashes are constantly aggrevating your pet's eyes, surgery can correct this problem. See your veterinarian for an exam to see if this is an issue in your pet. Unfortunately, there is no cure for shallow eye sockets.

4. There are many supplements on the market today to reduce or eliminate the tear staining. Some of these contain Tylosin, which is an antibiotic. These are typically the ones you want to stay away from, as we discussed earlier antibiotics are not a long-term solution. If you do choose to use a supplement, check with your veterinarian for safety information.

5. The easiest, least-risky solution is to simply allow your groomer to shave away the hair in the stained area so there is less hair to stain. Also, wash your pet's face daily to diminish the amount of tears and bacteria on the face. This will not cure the problem, but it will keep your pet looking cute and clean from day to day!








DOG VISION and EYES
INTERPRET DOG EYES
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Interpret your dog's eye signals. A dog's eyes express as much as human eyes do, and just as you learn to interpret people's eye signals, you can also learn to interpret your dog's. Here are some of the more common eye signals:

Eyes wide open: this means that your dog is feeling alert, playful, and ready.

Staring: staring indicates dominant, challenging behavior.

Avoiding eye contact: a dog trying to look away from your face can be showing politeness, deference, or submission.

Blinking or winking: these indicate that your dog is being playful.

Narrowed eyes: this can indicate that your dog is feeling aggressive and is preparing to attack. This gesture may be accompanied by staring.








DOG VISION and EYES
HUMAN vs DOG VISION
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A dog's visual world is similar to ours in many ways, but there are some notable differences. Dogs experience different vision quality in low light and day light, their field of vision is wider but with narrower overlap, and their perception of nearby objects and color is less distinct than a human's.

DOG VISION and EYES

Humans have 1.2 million nerve fibers in their optic nerve system, while dogs have 160,000, this allows humans to perceive more detail than a dog can, as long as there is enough light. In human terms, dogs can see 20:80 to our 20:20 during the daylight; however, they do have an advantage over humans in low light. A structure within the eye called the tapetum lucidum adds greater perception, and the green/yellow reflection, in low light.

DOG VISION and EYES

In addition to different vision quality in high or low light, dogs also have a different field of vision from humans, allowing them to see more of their surroundings without moving their heads. The average dog's field of vision is 240 degrees vs. human's 180 degrees.

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES



Although they can see a wider view, dogs can't focus much closer than 30-50 cm from their noses, relying on other senses, especially smell, when examining objects close up.

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Despite the various differences between the visual ability of man and dog, they still do share certain common traits. One of these is our visual ability concerning things in motion. Dog, like humans, do not see a stationary object as well as one that is moving at a moderate speed. For instance, a camouflaged bug hiding in the bushes will not be detected as easily by our eyes as will that same bug when it starts moving. Going by that same logic, it is also far easier to play tennis with a green ball on a green grass court than it is to find a stationary ball in that same location.

DOG VISION and EYES

There are several types of color-sensitive receptor cells in the eye, referred to as cones, which allow the subject to view different areas of the spectrum. Dogs only have 2 types of cones, while humans enjoy 3 types. This means dogs cannot distinguish red from orange or orange from yellow, and they see turquoise as grey. Color vision studies indicate that dogs see more color than other 2-coned mammals.

DOG VISION and EYES

Generally speaking, dogs and humans perceive a very similar visual world. Remembering these little differences can help us better understand what our pets can and cannot see.

DOG VISION and EYES

Many people think that their pet dog lives in an old black and white movie, unable to distinguish colors, and it seems that it is a ho-hum world indeed. Poor Fido can't even enjoy that handsome winter sweater we so carefully picked out for his days at the dog park. And what about that fancy blue ball he loves to fetch? Is it merely a dim grey orb lolling in bleak grey grass? Well, not quite.

DOG VISION and EYES DOG VISION and EYES

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Until rather recently, the 1990's in fact, it was thought that dogs could not see color at all. After advanced research, science has come to find that your dog's retinas actually do contain the color-sensitive components called cones.

DOG VISION and EYES

Dogs have fewer cones than we do in our retinas so they don't see quite as many colors as a human, and the colors they see are not as robust and vibrant, but they do see color.

DOG VISION and EYES

The following graph (courtesy of Dr. Mark Plonsky PHD, University of Wisconson, Stevens Point) is a wonderful and easy to read example of how your dog's vision compares to our human vision.

In looking at the chart we can see that certain colors are indistinguishable to them. Red looks brownish-grey or brownish-black, and orange, green and yellow all look yellow.

DOG & HUMAN VISION and EYES

Your dog is able to see the color blue. Purple seems blue to them. Greenish blue and green seem grey.

There are also differences in how dogs see visual angles in contrast to human beings, especially the horizontal angle. People can see at an angle of approximately 180 degrees, while dogs do it at an angle of 250 Gradus.

DOG FIELD OF VIEWHUMAN FIELD OF VIEW

Studies performed by Russian scientists demonstrated that dogs tend to discriminate real color rather than brightness cues. Dogs have dichromatic color vision, which means that they have two types of cones in their eyes. They match any color they register with no more than two pure spectral lights. Placental mammals are in general dichromatic. The ability to see long wavelengths necessary to distinguish red from green seems to have disappeared during evolution, probably after the Triassic period. Dichromatic vision is, though, good to distinguish colors in dim light, favoring the most nocturnal animals.

DOG VISION and EYES

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DOG VISION and EYES
DOG VISION and BREEDS
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Dog vision and what dogs see, varies from breed to breed too. A husky's eyes are slanted, letting him see sideways. His eyes are also surrounded by dark skin which reduces the glare from snow. It also makes his eyes a prominent feature for communication.

DOG VISION and EYES

Hounds used for hunting, see movement of jack rabbits, coyotes, deer and other animals at incredible distances. One German study showed that some dogs could detect motion at 1000 yards away.

DOG VISION and EYES

Afghan hounds are an example. They were actually bred for their acute vision and speed. Afghans' eyes are much more sensitive to light and movement than are ours. If you look at an afghan's face, you'll see the slanted position of her eyes. This gives her exceptional peripheral vision.

DOG VISION and EYES

And so, the next time you look at your dog and wonder what do dogs see. The answer is that they see better than we do, when detecting movement at a distance. But, like many of us over 40, close-up dog vision is not too good!


DOG VISION and EYES

DOGS WITH BEST VISION
One of the best things about dogs are all of the differences between breeds. Because of the immense versatility of dogs, we're able to find a breed whose characteristics will be suit our lifestyle. Some dogs like pugs for instance, aren't known for their great vision. Then on the other hand, there are dogs who hunt by their vision alone. The AKC refers to these dogs as sighthounds or gazehounds. While there is not yet scientific proof if these sight hound breeds have better vision than other dogs, it is widely accepted that they are more reactive towards fast moving objects, especially in the peripheral vision.

DOG VISION and EYES

AFGHAN
The Afghan Hound is widely recognizable thanks to its long luxurious coat and its curled tip tail. What might not be initially observable about these dogs though is their innate ability to hunt and track down prey using mainly their vision. It was traditionally a breed used to herd, protect and hunt.


DOG VISION and EYES

WHIPPET
The whippet is essentially a miniature greyhound. They're the fastest dogs for their size, having been clocked up to 35 mph. The whippet is known for it's elegance and grace- making it's hunting purpose a second thought. Whippets were best suited to hunting rabbits and rats due to their smaller size and more delicate frame.


DOG VISION and EYES

SALUKU
The saluki is known for its stunning set of feathered ears. Covered in long flowing hair, they're a site to behold no doubt. The Saluki is one of the oldest domesticated breeds of dog, and they originated in Egypt. The breed originally hunted with the Egyptians, bringing down gazelle and later rabbit.


DOG VISION and EYES

GREYHOUND
The Greyhound is recognized as being the fastest breed of dog, followed closely by it's smaller counterpart the whippet. Originally the Greyhound was a breed of royalty. It's use for hunting was a later discovery, and they were primarily used to hunt anything from rabbits, foxes, and deer.


DOG VISION and EYES

BORZOIS
were bred in Russia. As with most hound breeds, the Borzoi is an independent creature that has a mind of it's own at times. The Borzoi is designed to be able to run long distances without tiring, they originally hunted wolves and foxes.


DOG VISION and EYES

IRISH WOLFHOUND
is the tallest breed, but they're not the heaviest. It may come as a surprise that they're sight hounds at all! They hunted wolves, wild elk, and were fierce protectors of the home. Their coarse wiry coat gives them a distinct advantage if tracking prey through dense prickly underbrush.








DOG VISION and EYES
DOG's SENSE OF SIGHT
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DOG VISION and EYES

Dog eyesight works in about three different ways:
motion, contrast and colour.


Sense of Motion
Your dog's ability to sense motion is much better then a human's. As an example, when we look at the television we see fluid pictures, but what a dog sees is quite different; dogs see the television as flashes of light.

A dog's perception of movement is so good that it can see a moving object from half a mile away. If the object a dog is looking at is stationary then your dog will only be able to see it at 600 yards away.


Visual Acuity
On average, dog eyesight is measured at 20/75 vision. This means that a dog sees the same thing at 20 feet as a human would see at 75 feet. Anything closer than 33 cm to a dog will appear to them as blurry whereas with humans we can get things as close as 7 cm and still see them perfectly.


Field of Vision
The range of vision a dog has is in direct correlation to the size of the nose and how close the eyes are to each other. As a general rule the longer a dog's nose is, the greater its field of vision. A human has a field of vision of 180 degrees while a Pekinese has 220 degree vision and an Afghan Hound has a massive 290 degree vision.


Colour Perception
Just like human eyes, dog's eyes are made up of rods and cones. Dogs have a different emphasis however, humans have more cones and dogs have more rods, this means that dogs can see better in the dark than we can. Contrary to popular opinion dogs are not colour blind, they have difficulty distinguishing between indigos, blues and violets. Blueish green colours appear to dogs as a shade of grey. Although humans are better at distinguishing colours, dog vision is better at telling the difference between subtle greys.


Night vision
The night vision of the dog, or their ability to differentiate between shapes, obstacles and spaces in limited light is actually much keener than that of people. Dogs' eyes have more rods than those of people, which enable the eyes to process the available light more effectively, as well as having a reflective surface in the area of the eyes that contains the light-sensitive cells, meaning that the eyes of the dog also amplify and magnify the available light. This reflective surface is what causes your dog's eyes to take on that odd reflective green glow that you might see if you shine a torch on them in the dark, or take a picture of them using a camera with a flash!

Dogs see a lot better than humans do at night. Dogs have many adaptations for low-light vision. A larger pupil lets in more light. The center of the retina has more of the light-sensitive cells (rods), which work better in dim light than the color-detecting cones. Dogs have good night vision, due in large part to the tapetum, a mirror-like structure which reflects light, giving the retina a second chance to register light that has entered the eye. This is also what makes dogs eyes glow at night. The dog is holding a toy in her mouth.


Movement
Dogs are more adept at detecting movement than people, even from some distance away. Added to their superior night vision, this explains why dogs will sometimes take off in pursuit of something in the dark that their handlers are totally unaware of or unable to see! Detecting movement is key to the vision of the dog, and dogs are much less adept at detecting or focusing on the presence of something that is stationary, or differentiating it from other parts of the landscape. This is why movement is so effective at getting and holding your dog's attention, as it makes you stand out strongly against the backdrop.


Depth and range
Dogs' eyes are set more to the sides of their heads than peoples eyes are, meaning that dogs have a much wider field of vision, and are able to see things to their sides and towards their backs whereas humans can only see straight ahead and peripherally. While people have 180 degree vision, in the dog this is nearer to 270 degrees (depending on breed), giving a smaller blind spot to the rear. This allows the dog to process an overall snapshot of everything that is going on around them, and gives them more chance of observing things approaching from behind them, but gives them less depth perception than that of people. Depth perception is provided by both eyes working together, which happens within the field of vision that is viewed by both eyes. As the field of overlap in the vision of both eyes is smaller for dogs than for people (as their eyes are further apart, providing a wider range of vision) this means that the depth perception of the dog is less accurate than that of people.


Eye for detail
Dogs do not have a good eye for detail, or the ability to pick out the finer features of things. This means that dogs can view large obstacles and clear delineations much more clearly than they can view subtleties, and your dog is unable to be likely to pick our specific patterns or markings, such as on their bedding or your furniture. The cones of the eyes provide acuity of vision, and the eye of the dog does not have any area that is 100% cones, unlike people. This means that the detail vision or acuity of the dog is as much as six times poorer than that of people.


Light and darkness
Dogs are less sensitive to light and brightness than people are, and can detect brightness and changes in the light (such as sunrise and sunset) about half as proficiently as people. This means that people pick up many more subtle changes in the light and shadows than dogs are able to.


Night Vs. Day Vision
Dogs can see slightly better than a person can during the night, but we see better in daylight. Dogs can see better at night because they have a structure called the tapetum lucidum, which is a reflective layer of cells behind the retina. This structure provides the characteristic shiny eyes seen when you point a flashlight at your dog's eyes at nighttime.

Another reason why dogs see better at night has to do with the specialized cells at the back of the retina called rods and cones. Rods are used for night vision and cones are utilized for day vision. Dogs have more rods and fewer cones.

DOG VISION and EYES

During the daytime, a person sees much better than their dog, but the dog's vision is quite adequate. Perfect vision in a person is considered 20:20, whereas a dog can see at 20:80, at best. This is fine for a canine's activities, but do not expect him to learn to read this page anytime soon.

Your puppy's close up vision is not as refined as your vision is. Most will not be able to focus any closer than about 11 to 18 inches (30 to 50 centimeters). Your puppy will still recognize you by his keen sense of smell.


Dogs third eyelid
Dogs have a third eyelid also called the haw or nictating membrane. This eyelid automatically moves up and down, sweeping the eye clean on a regular basis, allowing for uninterrupted night time hunts through thick brush. While this eyelid is normally transparent (and so not easily seen) if the gland associated with it becomes infected the infection can be detected as a red swelling known as "cherry eye".


The other senses
As with people, the senses of the dog work together to present the full picture of the world to them, and allow them to manage it accordingly. Over all, the eyesight of the dog is not as keen as that of people. However the dog's sense of smell and the incredible range of scent differentiation that the dog is capable of balances this out. While people are generally highly visually oriented and rely on their eyesight to undertake the main part of their navigation around their world, for dogs, their primary sense is smell, which to a great extent works to balance out the difference between canine and human vision when taken as a complete picture.


DOG VISION and EYES

For more detailed information
Read this DOG VISION ARTICLE
by paul Miller & Christopher J. Murphy
(Download PDF file)









DOG VISION and EYES
DOG's EYE TYPES & COLORS
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DOG VISION and EYES
HDTV for DOGS
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Why Do Dogs Prefer HDTV
Most dogs show little interest in the average television set because of their visual abilities. In its simplest form, a motion seen on the tv screen is just a changing pattern of light across the retina in our eye. The average person cannot see any flickering above 55 cycles per second (55 Hz). But beagles see flicker rates up to 75 Hz—about 50 percent faster than human rates-suggesting dogs perceive motion better than people do.

DOG VISION and EYES

Television images flicker at about 60 Hz. Since that is above a humanэs flicker resolution ability of 55 Hz, the image appears continuous to us and blends smoothly together. Since dogs can resolve flickers at 75 Hz, images on a tv screen probably appears less real and less worthy of attention.

DOG VISION and EYES

However, since high-resolution digital screens are refreshed at a much higher rate, reports are increasingly surfacing of pooches who become very interested in newer technology hdtvs when a nature show contains images of animals moving.

DOG VISION and EYES

Canine channels
We humans need about 16 to 20 images a second to perceive what we see as continuous film, whereas dogs need about 70 images per second. So a few years ago, Fido was probably confounded by his master's behaviour of sitting for hours staring at a flashing succession of images. With modern resolution and quicker imaging, dogs have become potential television viewers.

DOG VISION

This has not gone unrecognised in the USA, for example, where hopeful TV producers have started special TV channels for dogs. If you have other pets, however, you need to think twice before placing them in front of the TV.

DOG VISION and EYES

Birds need at least 100 frames per second to see TV images as a moving picture. Having a bird in the same room as a TV with a lower frame rate than that will be very stressful for the creature.

DOG VISION and EYES

"It's cruelty to animals," says Ropstad. "It's like putting you in a room with strobe lights, like in a discotheque."Nevertheless, while dogs can now see what's happening on TV, they still don't see the same as we do.


DOG VISION
Limited research on dog TV
"No research has been made regarding differences in breeds as regards how many images per second they need to perceive TV as film," Ropstad says. He thinks there are individual differences in dogs, even though science doesn't have an answer yet to why this is so. He has conducted research on five bird dogs and says some of them are interested in TV, while others couldn't care less.

DOG VISION and EYES

One of his dogs is very watchful if it sees a bird or another dog crop up on the screen. A dog that loves chasing tennis balls might be intrigued by a broadcast from Wimbledon, he thinks. If you have a dog that eagerly watches animals on TV, but understands they aren't really there in the room, then you might have a real canny canine.

DOG VISION and EYES

"They see details on the new TVs, sure, but not completely clearly." Dogs can see a bird flying across the TV screen in about as much detail as they see it in nature. So it's no surprise that some dogs jump at the TV when a wolf or horse suddenly turns up right in the living room. But it should be noted that not all dogs necessarily see equally well.

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DOG VISION and EYES
BEST FOODS
FOR HEALTHY DOG VISION

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Eye health in dogs has become the talk of the town. There's more and more discussion about eye disease in canines, including macular degeneration, cataracts, uveitis and glaucoma.

dog and puppy infograms, infographics

Many people have written to me, asking if there are any particular foods they could consider including in their dogs' diets to foster eye health and perhaps help prevent or stave off eye problems.

DOG VISION SIMULATOR

Here's a top ten list of foods that contain some all important eye worthy buzz words like anthocyanins, beta-carotene, carotenoids, glutathione, Omega3 essential fatty acids, lycopene, phytonutrients and the very special partnership of lutein and zeaxanthin, sometimes referred to as sunscreen for the eyes.


DOG VISION and EYES

1. Blueberries contain two very important eye healthy carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin. They also contain anthocyanins, eye-nourishing phytonutrients that are shown to support night vision. Flavonoids, like rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, are also found in blueberries, and may help prevent macular degeneration. Blueberries also contain selenium and zinc, which further support vision. Eating blueberries has even been associated with the reduction of eye fatigue.

2. Broccoli Besides its anti-cancer benefits, broccoli is also recognized as one of the best vegetables for eye health.It is a great source of lutein and zeaxanthin and is also packed with beta-carotene. Try parboiling a few broccoli florets by simply dropping them into boiling water and timing for two minutes; cool and serve for a power-packed side dish. Don't leave the leaves behind, because they contain even more beta-carotene than the stems and florets.Broccoli and broccoli sprouts have been found to protect the retina from free radical damage. This may be due to a compound called sulphuraphane, which boosts the body's defense system against free radicals.

3. Carrots are among the kingpins of the vegetable patch. There are over 100 varieties, from the deepest purple and white to the brilliant orange we are most accustomed to seeing. Each is a storehouse of nutrient power. Carrots contain pro-vitamin A, betacarotene, vitamins B, C, D, E and K, and riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulphur, copper and iodine. The old axiom that carrots are good for the eyes is not just a myth. Carrots also contain lycopene and lutein, protective phytonutrients that protect the eye from UVB radiation and damage from free radicals.

4. Cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, cod, haddock and sardines are rich in Omega-3 essential fatty acids. Fish is especially high in EPA and DHA, two Omega3s important to cellular health. DHA makes up 30% of the fatty acids that comprise the retina. The particularly high levels of Omega3 in sardines provide some protection against macular degeneration.

5.Eggs are rich in cycteine and sulphur, two components of glutathione. This may explain why sulphur containing compounds have been found to protect eyes from cataract formation. Egg yolks contain lutein, and diets high in lutein may lead to a reduced risk of developing macular degeneration. The zeaxanthin found in eggs is also beneficial to eye health. A study published by the University of Massachusetts in 2006 found that eating an egg a day raised levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in the blood, helping reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration. The study further found that while serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in the blood were significantly increased, serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not.

6.Garlic Sulphur rich garlic is important for the production of glutathione, an important protein that acts as an antioxidant for the lens of the eye. Glutathione is found to be instrumental in the prevention of some visual problems.

7.Kale is an excellent source of lutein and zeaxanthin. The American Optometric Association says these special antioxidants act like "internal sunglasses". add beta-carotene to the mix and you have the perfect food to help to protect against oxidative stress.

8.Pumpkin The beautiful bright orange is a sure sign that pumpkins are packed with carotenoids such as beta-carotene, which help neutralize free radicals. The lutein and zeaxanthin found in pumpkin also promotes eye health and makes it yet another whole food that protects against macular generation. Even pumpkin seeds carry lots of benefits, including Omega-3, zinc and phytosterols to enhance your dog's immune response.

9.Sweet Potatoes have so much to offer. They are one of the world's healthiest foods. They are loaded with beta-carotene, making them the perfect choice to protect eye health. steaming sweet potatoes for just seven minutes actually maximizes their potential to support canine health. sweet potatoes are packed with anthocyanins that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

10.Tomatoes are known as a super food. They contain two eye-healthy nutrients: lycopene and lutein. lycopene is a carotenoid and phytonutrient found in red fruits and vegetables. it is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect against macular degeneration. Lycopene has been well documented as effective in cancer prevention, and its antioxidant properties act to protect the eyes from sun damage. Processed tomato products contain higher levels of lycopene than raw tomatoes. in fact, lycopene is even more bioavailable when tomatoes are cooked with a little first-pressed extra virgin olive oil, increasing the body's ability to absorb and utilize this very important eye support. Pass the tomato sauce!

DOG VISION and EYES








BLINDNESS IN DOGS SYMPTOMS - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES
BLINDNESS IN DOGS
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Wyatt Robinson

If the blindness affects only one eye, it is called unilateral blindness. If it affects both eyes, it is bilateral.

Sometimes dogs can become suddenly or gradually blind, and it depends on the severity of the disease. Dogs are individuals and react in different ways to losing their sight. But for all of them, there are some things you should do at the start.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS SYMPTOMS - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

Dogs who are blind from birth are unaware that they are different from other dogs. They interact with the world much like any other puppy, they just go about it differently. Blind dogs rely on their senses of smell and hearing to compensate for the lack of sight, and those senses become more acute over time. Without proper socialization, however, a dog may become fearful and stressed in unfamiliar situations.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS SYMPTOMS - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

Therefore early and frequent socialization with other animals and humans is important and should continue throughout life. It allows the dog to develop self-confidence and dog and his owner to bond more closely. The dog will experience a richer life with exposure to a variety of new people, situations, and experiences.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS SYMPTOMS - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

Most dogs with vision loss and blindness experience a gradual loss of vision over time. Frequently owners rush to the veterinarian with a claim of sudden blindness when examination indicates that the animal has been blind for some time. The dog has managed to compensate so well, it's only when there is a change in their home environment or exposure to a new situation that the problem becomes apparent.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS SYMPTOMS - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

These dogs are far better equipped to deal with the vision loss/blindness than the owners. The owner's sense of grief and loss is understandable, but usually the pet has moved on and is coping just fine. Many people consider euthanizing their blind pets, thinking that their quality of life will be diminished.

Sudden onset blindness can be much harder for both the dog and owner than a gradual loss of vision. Even then, most dogs can adjust, but the adjustment period is likely to be longer and harder. Where a dog whose vision gradually diminishes has the opportunity to work on mapping out his environment and developing coping strategies without the owner's help or knowledge, a dog with sudden onset blindness is plunged into darkness without warning. He is more likely to experience depression, nervousness, and anxiety.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS, Blind-Risk Dog Breeds - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

The owner will have to take more precautions, such as adding baby gates or otherwise blocking off stairs and other hazards, removing or padding sharp corners on furniture, and make other accommodations until the dog has adjusted to his condition and mapped his environment.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS, Blind-Risk Dog Breeds - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

You may need to limit access to one or two rooms at a time until the dog is comfortable there, before expanding his access to the rest of the house. Once he has mastered those, add another room or two. You may need to walk him around the rooms and "show" him obstacles - placement of furniture and other objects, and the location of his food and water bowls and bed or crate.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS, Blind-Risk Dog Breeds - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

How well your dog will cope with blindness will depend on the dog. Young dogs will adapt better than old dogs, but may require more vigilance because their exuberance can lead them to dangerous situations. Indoor pets are likely to adjust more easily than those allowed to run free. A dominant dog in a multi-dog environment may have more difficult adjusting than a single dog, especially if the other dogs challenge his pack position. Or his companions may help him with adjusting. If blindness is caused by a painful condition such as glaucoma or a systemic disease such as diabetes, the dog may have more difficulty adjusting until the underlying condition is treated.

BLINDNESS IN DOGS, Blind-Risk Dog Breeds - BLIND DOGS and PUPPIES

Even dogs who adapt well otherwise may experience some personality changes. Many dogs will develop some degree of separation anxiety, they are more dependent on their owners and will become distressed when the owner leaves. This can be addressed through training and behavioral modification, but it will be more challenging because the underlying condition, blindness, cannot be changed. Perhaps the most important factor in how well a dog copes with his new condition is the owner. Giving your dog the love and support he needs during his adjustment is crucial. If you must give in to your emotions, do it away from the dog. It is important to remain upbeat and positive in his presence.








DOG VISION and EYES
DOG COLOR VISION
vs CANINE SPORT

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DOG VISION and EYES
HOW TO GIVE YOUR DOG
EYE DROPS

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Eye drops are usually used on a dog to heal infection, to help ulcers heal, and in some cases to treat dry eye. If your dog has one of these conditions, your veterinarian may prescribe topical eye drops or ointment. In order to apply the medication properly, you'll want to set everything up first and calm/restrain your dog before you actually treat your dog's eyes.

DOG VISION and EYES

DOG VISION and EYES

Wash your hands before beginning. This is good practice to get used to. Since you are treating an area that is sensitive to dust, grim, and foreign bacteria, you don't want to add to endanger your dog's vision. Make sure you use anti-bacterial soap.

Have the medicine ready. Whether you are using a drop or an ointment, you'll want to have it open and close to you. Most likely, your dog won't want to get the treatment and will struggle. You need to make this as speedy as possible.

Ask someone to help you. It really all depends on your dog. If your dog is lazy or peaceful, you might be able to apply the medicine yourself. If you think your dog will struggle, squirm, or even bite, you'll need another person there to help you hold your dog.

Hold your dog securely. If you are by yourself, it's a good idea to apply the medication when your dog's hindquarters are against a wall or a piece of furniture. This will make it difficult for your pet to back away from you. (If you have a helper, he can stand behind the dog or secure its hindquarters between his knees. With free hands, the helper can then stabilize your dog's head for you. If the dog is small enough, it might be easier to place it on a table.)

Consider alternative restraining techniques. If your dog's legs are too strong to use the medicine while it is standing up, consider placing it on its side. Have the holder pin its legs to the ground. Similarly, if your dog tends to nip or bite when you apply medication to its eyes, you may need to get a muzzle. This will limit your dog's ability to open its mouth. Muzzle your dog if you can't hold him in a relaxed position. (Ideally, you shouldn't use either of these techniques. You don't want to stress your dog out more than you have to. If you create a pleasant experience for your dog, they'll be easier to manage in the future.)

Gently clean your dog's eyes. Before applying the medication, make sure that the eye area is clean. Place one hand on the side of your dog's jaw to support its head, and tilt its head upwards. Gently wipe away any discharge with a damp cotton wool ball or a tissue. Dispose of the items used to wipe your dog's eye promptly to avoid reinfection.

Position the dog's head. Cradle your dog's head in your non-dominant hand and hold the bottle of drops with your dominant hand. With the thumb of the hand holding the head, gently pull down the lower eyelid to form a pouch. This space behind the lower eyelid is the conjunctival sac, and it is a good place to apply eye medication. Rest the hand holding the medication on the pet's forehead, so if the dog jerks its head, your hand will move with it.

Apply eye drops. Without touching the tip of the bottle to the dog's eye (about 1/8" is a good distance), place the required number of drops into the conjunctival sac or on the eyeball.By putting the medicine in the conjunctival sac, it will spread around the eye ball easier without spilling out of the dog's eye. Try to give the drops a few seconds to disperse before letting the dog shake its head. As long as you actually get the drops in the eye, though, there's probably no need to worry if the dog does shake its head. Eye drops disperse rapidly.

Apply eye ointment. The procedure is basically the same as administering eye drops. Restrain your dog's head. Without touching the tip of the tube to the dog's eyeball, apply a ribbon of medication to the conjunctival sac. Gently close the dog's eye and massage the eyelid with your finger to disperse the medication across the eyeball. (If your dog flinches and you are sure that none of the medication got into the eye, take a deep breath, wipe away the ointment, and try again. If you are patient and persistent, it will get easier.)

Gently massage your dog's eyelids. This will disperse the treatment. Do this lightly for as long as your dog will reasonably let you. Ideally, you would gently rub your dog's eyelid for 10 to 15 seconds to make sure that the medicine has fully spread across your dog's eye.

Repeat the process. Follow your vet's instructions. Some drops/ointments will need to be administered every two hours, some twice a day, and some once a day. The recommended frequency should be printed on the side of the bottle, if it's a prescription drop/ointment.

Give your dog a treat when you finish. The more positive the experience you can make this for your pet, the easier it will be to medicate its eyes in the future. It is all about positive conditioning. Your dog will respond well.

Stop your dog from rubbing its eye. If your dog's eyes were irritated before, the eye drops should help. Yet, in some cases, the eye drops or ointment might be a new source of irritation. Regardless, do your best to stop your dog from rubbing its eye. Your dog might use its paws to rub its eyes or it'll drag its heads on the carpet. Stay close to your dog and hold them if you need to while the medicine works its magic.

Close and secure the medication. Most medicines need to be resealed after use to retain their potency. You've finished applying eye drops or ointments to your dog's eyes, but the job isn't over until the medicine is closed and placed in a safe place.

DOG VISION and EYES








DOG VISION and EYES
HOW ANIMALS
SEE THE WORLD

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HOW DOGS SEE THE WORLD

HOW DOGS SEE THE WORLD

DOG VISION and EYES

What does this mean for our communication and training of our dogs? Since dogs find it difficult to distinguish between certain reds and greens, like some humans do, we should choose toys and training aids in other colors.



For example, light-blue or yellow are much easier colors for a dog to detect. On the other side, when training them in any scent detection discipline, we should use colors for the targets that are difficult for them to see so to compel them to use their noses and not their eyes.








DOG VISION and EYES
HOW IT LOOKS TO A DOG
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ROBERT BROWN


DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN

DOG VISION and EYES (c) by ROBERT BROWN




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